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Bisphosphonates (BPs) and denosumab reduce the risk of spine and nonspine fractures. Atypical femur fractures (AFFs) located in the subtrochanteric region and diaphysis of the femur have been reported in patients taking BPs and in patients on denosumab, but they also occur in patients with no exposure to these drugs. In this report, we review studies on the(More)
Fracture healing and distraction osteogenesis have important applications in orthopedic, maxillofacial, and periodontal treatment. In this review, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate fracture repair are contrasted with bone regeneration that occurs during distraction osteogenesis. While both processes have many common features, unique(More)
Reports linking long-term use of bisphosphonates (BPs) with atypical fractures of the femur led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address key questions related to this problem. A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed pertinent published reports concerning atypical femur fractures, as(More)
Fracture healing in diabetic individuals and in animal models of diabetes is impaired. To investigate mechanisms by which diabetes may affect fracture healing we focused on the transition from cartilage to bone, a midpoint in the fracture healing process. Femoral fractures were induced in mice rendered diabetic by multiple low dose streptozotocin treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The recent emergence of autologous blood concentrates, such as platelet-rich plasma, as a treatment option for patients with orthopaedic injuries has led to an extensive debate about their clinical benefit. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of autologous blood concentrates in decreasing pain and(More)
Clinical experience gives rise to the impression that there are differences in fracture healing in different age groups. It is evident that fractures heal more efficiently in children than in adults. However, minimal objective knowledge exists to evaluate this assumption. Temporal, spatial, and cellular quantitative and qualitative interrelationships, as(More)
The osteolytic bone destruction associated with breast cancer skeletal metastases represents a serious and incurable clinical condition. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating tumor cell expression of factors involved in the generation of osteolytic disease remain elusive. We demonstrated recently that breast cancer cells express the Runx2(More)
Although fracture healing is a well-optimized biological process that leads to healing, approximately 10-20% of fractures result in impaired or delayed healing and these fractures may benefit from the use of biotechnologies to enhance skeletal repair. Peptide signaling molecules such as the bone morphogenetic proteins have been shown to stimulate the(More)
The effects of BMP2 on bone marrow stromal cell differentiation and bone formation after bone marrow ablation were determined using C57 BL/6J (B6) mice. Inhibition of BMP2 expression with lentiviral BMP2 shRNA prevented both mineralized nodule formation in vitro and bone formation in vivo, and blocked the expression of Runx2 and osterix, transcriptional(More)
Prostaglandins are important mediators of bone repair, and cyclooxygenases are required for prostaglandin production. Data from animal studies suggest that both non-specific and specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenases impair fracture healing but that this is due to the inhibition of COX-2 and not COX-1. Although these data raise concerns about the use of(More)