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Diclofenac is eliminated predominantly (approximately 50%) as its 4'-hydroxylated metabolite in humans, whereas the acyl glucuronide (AG) pathway appears more important in rats (approximately 50%) and dogs (>80-90%). However, previous studies of diclofenac oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes (HLMs) have yielded pronounced underprediction of human(More)
The active forms of all marketed hydroxymethylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors share a common dihydroxy heptanoic or heptenoic acid side chain. In this study, we present evidence for the formation of acyl glucuronide conjugates of the hydroxy acid forms of simvastatin (SVA), atorvastatin (AVA), and cerivastatin (CVA) in rat, dog, and human liver(More)
It is generally accepted that there is neither a well-defined nor a consistent link between the formation of drug-protein adducts and organ toxicity. Because the potential does exist, however, for these processes to be causally related, the general strategy at Merck Research Laboratories has been to minimize reactive metabolite formation to the extent(More)
Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which is effective in the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. We report herein that cytochrome P450 (P450)3A4 is inhibited by raloxifene in human liver microsomal incubations. The nature of the inhibition was irreversible and was NADPH- and preincubation time-dependent, with K(I) and(More)
Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 is an inordinately important CYP enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of a vast array of clinically used drugs. Microsomal proteins of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses encoding CYP3A4 cDNA were used to immunize mice and to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb(3A4a)) specific to CYP3A4(More)
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac causes a rare but potentially fatal hepatotoxicity that may be associated with the formation of reactive metabolites. In this study, three glutathione (GSH) adducts, namely 5-hydroxy-4-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M1), 4'-hydroxy-3'-(glutathion-S-yl)diclofenac (M2), and(More)
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) plays a prominent role in the metabolism of a vast array of drugs and xenobiotics and exhibits broad substrate specificities. Most cytochrome P450-mediated reactions follow simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These parameters are widely accepted to predict pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences in vivo caused by exposure(More)
The cytochrome P450-dependent terminal desaturation of valproic acid (VPA) is of both toxicological and mechanistic interest because the product, 4-ene-VPA, is a more potent hepatotoxin than the parent compound and its generation represents a rather novel metabolic reaction for the cytochrome P450 system. In the present study, lung microsomes from rabbits(More)