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The conductivity of the human skull was measured both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro measurement was performed on a sample of fresh skull placed within a saline environment. For the in vivo measurement a small current was passed through the head by means of two electrodes placed on the scalp. The potential distribution thus generated on the scalp was(More)
Holes in the skull may have a large influence on the EEG and ERP. Inverse source modeling techniques such as dipole fitting require an accurate volume conductor model. This model should incorporate holes if present, especially when either a neuronal generator or the electrodes are close to the hole, e.g., in case of a trephine hole in the upper part of the(More)
BACKGROUND Discussion about the selection of diagnostic features of the ECG and their possible interpretation would benefit from a model of the genesis of these signals that has a sound basis in electrophysiology as well as in physics. Recent advances in computer technology have made it possible to build a simulation package whereby the genesis of ECG(More)
Progress in functional neuroimaging of the brain increasingly relies on the integration of data from complementary imaging modalities in order to improve spatiotemporal resolution and interpretability. However, the usefulness of merely statistical combinations is limited, since neural signal sources differ between modalities and are related non-trivially.(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique able to induce long-lasting changes in cortical excitability that can benefit cognitive functioning and clinical treatment. In order to both better understand the mechanisms behind tDCS and possibly improve the technique, finite element models are used to simulate(More)
In this paper it is demonstrated that the use of a direct matrix inverse in the solution of the forward problem in volume conduction problems greatly facilitates the application of standard, nonlinear parameter estimation procedures for finding the strength as well as the location of current sources inside an inhomogeneous volume conductor of arbitrary(More)
OBJECTIVE We investigate volume conduction effects in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and present a guideline for efficient and yet accurate volume conductor modeling in tDCS using our newly-developed finite element (FE) approach. APPROACH We developed a new, accurate and fast isoparametric FE approach for high-resolution geometry-adapted(More)
The sequences of activation and recovery of the heart have physiological and clinical relevance. We report on progress made over the last years in the method that images these timings based on an equivalent double layer on the myocardial surface serving as the equivalent source of cardiac activity, with local transmembrane potentials (TMP) acting as their(More)
We have previously proposed an inverse algorithm for fitting potentials due to an arbitrary bio-electrical source to a single equivalent moving dipole (SEMD) model. The algorithm achieves fast identification of the SEMD parameters by employing a SEMD model embedded in an infinite homogeneous volume conductor. However, this may lead to systematic error in(More)
The use of the surface Laplacian of the potential (Ls) in bioelectricity is discussed. Different estimates of Ls, in particular the field measured by coaxial electrodes, are compared to that of the true Laplacian. A method to compute Ls on the surface of an inhomogeneous volume conductor of arbitrary shape resulting from assumed electrical sources in(More)