Thiruvallur R. Gowrishankar

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Conventional electroporation (EP) by 0.1 to 1 kV/cm pulses longer than 100 micros, and supra-electroporation by 10 to 300 kV/cm pulses shorter than 1 micros cause different cellular effects. Conventional EP delivers DNA, proteins, small drugs, and fluorescent indicators across the plasma membrane (PM) and causes moderate levels of phosphatidylserine (PS)(More)
The recent applications of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric field pulses to biological systems show striking cellular and subcellular electric field induced effects and revive the interest in the biophysical mechanism of electroporation. We first show that the absolute rate theory, with experimentally based parameter input, is consistent with(More)
Previous theoretical approaches to understanding effects of electric fields on cells have used partial differential equations such as Laplace's equation and cell models with simple shapes. Here we describe a transport lattice method illustrated by a didactic multicellular system model with irregular shapes. Each elementary membrane region includes local(More)
Extremely large but very short (20 kV/cm, 300 ns) electric field pulses were reported recently to non-thermally destroy melanoma tumors. The stated mechanism for field penetration into cells is pulse characteristic times faster than charge redistribution (displacement currents). Here we use a multicellular model with irregularly shaped, closely spaced cells(More)
Electroporation (EP) of outer cell membranes is widely used in research, biotechnology and medicine. Now intracellular effects by organelle EP are of growing interest, mainly due to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). For perspective, here we provide an approximate overview of EP pulse strength-duration space. This overview locates approximately some(More)
Conventional electroporation (EP) changes both the conductance and molecular permeability of the plasma membrane (PM) of cells and is a standard method for delivering both biologically active and probe molecules of a wide range of sizes into cells. However, the underlying mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels remain controversial. Here we(More)
The frequency and time domain transmembrane voltage responses of a cylindrical cell in an external electric field are calculated using a transport lattice, which allows solution of a variety of biologically relevant transport problems with complex cell geometry and field interactions. Here we demonstrate the method for a cylindrical membrane geometry and(More)
Science increasingly involves complex modeling. Here we describe a model for cell electroporation in which membrane properties are dynamically modified by poration. Spatial scales range from cell membrane thickness (5 nm) to a typical mammalian cell radius (10  $$\upmu$$ μ m), and can be used with idealized and experimental pulse waveforms. The model(More)
Local and drug-free tissue treatment by irreversible electroporation (IRE) involves the creation of aqueous pores in a cell's plasma membrane (PM) and leads to non-thermal cell death by necrosis. To investigate explicit pore-based effects we use two-dimensional system models with different spatial scales. The first is a multicellular system model (spatial(More)
Fibroblast cytomorphology is tightly coupled to phenotypic expression, particularly as it relates to extracellular matrix protein synthesis and degradation. We have observed that calcium antagonists, such as verapamil and trifluoperazine, depolymerize actin filaments and alter fibroblast cell shape from bipolar to spherical. Characteristically, the(More)