Thiruma Valavan Arumugam

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The innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and tissue injury through Toll-like receptors (TLR), a mechanism thought to be limited to immune cells. We now report that neurons express several TLRs, and that the levels of TLR2 and -4 are increased in neurons in response to IFN-gamma stimulation and energy deprivation. Neurons(More)
Many organ systems are adversely affected by diabetes, including the brain, which undergoes changes that may increase the risk of cognitive decline. Although diabetes influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the role of this neuroendocrine system in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that, in both(More)
BACKGROUND Although lymphocyte recruitment and activation are associated with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, the contributions of specific lymphocyte subpopulations and lymphocyte-derived interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to stroke remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to define the contribution of specific populations of lymphocytes to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ischemic stroke leads to significant morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Early reperfusion strategies remain the treatment of choice but can initiate and augment an inflammatory response causing secondary brain damage. The understanding of postischemic inflammation is very limited. The objectives of this study were to define(More)
Mice transgenic for antisense Notch and normal mice treated with inhibitors of the Notch-activating enzyme γ-secretase showed reduced damage to brain cells and improved functional outcome in a model of focal ischemic stroke. Notch endangers neurons by modulating pathways that increase their vulnerability to apoptosis, and by activating microglial cells and(More)
The innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms and tissue injury through Toll-like receptors (TLR), a mechanism thought to be limited to immune cells. We recently found that neurons express several TLRs, and that the levels of TLR2 and TLR4 are increased in neurons in response to energy deprivation. Here we report that TLR4(More)
The key roles of toll-like receptors (TLRs) as mediators of the detection and responses of immune cells to invading pathogens are well known. There are at least 13 mammalian TLRs which are integral membrane proteins with a leucine-rich extracellular domain and a cytoplasmic domain similar to that of the interleukin-1 receptor which initiates downstream(More)
Multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes have recently been identified and shown to contribute to cell death in tissue injury. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is an FDA-approved therapeutic modality used for various inflammatory diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate dynamic responses of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes in stroke and(More)
OBJECTIVE Age and excessive energy intake/obesity are risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, but it is not known if and how these factors affect the extent of brain damage and outcome in ischemic stroke. We therefore determined the interactions of age and energy intake on the outcome of ischemic brain injury, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. (More)
The mechanisms by which neural and glial progenitor cells in the adult brain respond to tissue injury are unknown. We studied the responses of these cells to stab wound injury in rats and in two transgenic mouse models in which Y/GFP is driven either by Sox2 (a neural stem cell marker) or by Talpha-1 (which marks newly born neurons). The response of neural(More)