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The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptors (NMDARs) in synapses provides plasticity and cell survival signals, whereas NMDARs residing in the neuronal membrane outside synapses trigger neurodegeneration. At present, it is unclear how these opposing signals are transduced to and discriminated by the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that Jacob is(More)
Synapsin is an evolutionarily conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein. It is encoded by only one gene in the Drosophila genome and is expressed throughout the nervous system. It regulates the balance between reserve and releasable vesicles, is required to maintain transmission upon heavy demand, and is essential for proper memory function at the behavioral(More)
The gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), is thought to play a major role in the modulation of memory. We tested adult nNOS-deficient and wild-type mice for their recognition memory abilities in the social discrimination paradigm, which is based on olfactory cues. Subsequently, proteomic(More)
Changes in synaptic efficacy underlying learning and memory processes are assumed to be associated with alterations of the protein composition of synapses. Here, we performed a quantitative proteomic screen to monitor changes in the synaptic proteome of four brain areas (auditory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus striatum) during auditory learning. Mice(More)
BACKGROUND The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulates mitogenesis, motogenesis, and morphogenesis in a wide range of tissues, including epithelial cells, on binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. Abnormal c-Met signalling contributes to tumour genesis, in particular to the development of invasive and metastatic phenotypes. The human microbial(More)
UNLABELLED In the vertebrate retina, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediates inhibitory processes that shape the visual response and is also thought to have neurotrophic functions during retinal development. To investigate the role of GABAergic signaling at the beginning of visual experience, we used immunohistochemistry to compare the distribution of GABA,(More)
Recent studies associate cathepsin K with schizophrenia. The endogenous substrates of this protease, however, remain to be identified. We show here that cathepsin K is capable of liberating met-enkephalin from beta-endorphin (beta-EP) in vitro. To verify if this process might possibly contribute in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia post mortem brains of(More)
Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor(More)
Using auditory discrimination learning in gerbils, we have previously shown that activation of auditory-cortical D1/D5 dopamine receptors facilitates mTOR-mediated, protein synthesis-dependent mechanisms of memory consolidation and anterograde memory formation. To understand molecular mechanisms of this facilitatory effect, we tested the impact of local(More)
Learning and memory processes are accompanied by rearrangements of synaptic protein networks. While various studies have demonstrated the regulation of individual synaptic proteins during these processes, much less is known about the complex regulation of synaptic proteomes. Recently, we reported that auditory discrimination learning in mice is associated(More)