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Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most prevalent occupational skin diseases and causes severe and long-lasting health problems in the case of chronification. It is initiated by an innate inflammatory immune response to skin contact with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, skin-homing CD8(+) Tc1/Tc17(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria/chronic spontaneous urticaria (CIU/CSU) often continue to experience symptoms despite receiving standard-of-care therapy with H1-antihistamines along with 1 or more add-on therapies. OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 24 weeks of treatment with omalizumab in patients with(More)
The question "What makes an allergen an allergen?" has puzzled generations of researchers, and we still do not have a conclusive answer. Despite increasing knowledge about the molecular and functional characteristics of allergens that have been identified, we still do not fully understand why some proteins are clinically relevant allergens and most are not.(More)
In the post-genome era, the mouse will have a major role as a model system for functional genome analysis. This requires a large number of mutants similar to the collections available from other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we report on a systematic, genome-wide, mutagenesis screen in mice. As part of the(More)
BACKGROUND Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important pattern recognition molecules that activate the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway leading to the production of antimicrobial immune mediators. As keratinocytes represent the first barrier against exogenous pathogens in human skin, we investigated their complete functional TLR1-10 expression profile. First, reverse(More)
Mast cells are pivotal effector cells in IgE-mediated allergic inflammatory diseases. Central for mast cell activation are signals from the IgE receptor FcepsilonRI, which induce cell degranulation with the release of preformed mediators and de novo synthesis of proinflammatory leukotrienes and cytokines. How these individual mast cell responses are(More)
BACKGROUND Detection of IgE to recombinant Hymenoptera venom allergens has been suggested to improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy. However, the frequency of sensitization to the only available recombinant honeybee venom (HBV) allergen, rApi m 1, in patients with HBV allergy is limited, suggesting that additional HBV allergens might(More)
Genetic vaccination depends at least in part on the adjuvant properties of plasmids, properties that have been ascribed to unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA. Because dendritic cells (DC) participate in the T cell priming that occurs during genetic vaccination, we reasoned that CpG-containing DNA might activate DC. Thus, we assessed the effects(More)
Sensitization to contact allergens requires activation of the innate immune system by endogenous danger signals. However, the mechanisms through which contact allergens activate innate signaling pathways are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor P2X(7) are resistant to contact(More)