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Head kinematics were studied in ten normal subjects while they executed various locomotor tasks. The movement of the body was recorded with a video system which allowed a computer reconstruction of motion of joint articulations and other selected points on the body in three dimensions. Analyses focus on head translation along the vertical axis and rotation(More)
The generation of accurate motor commands requires implicit knowledge of both limb and environmental dynamics. The action of gravity on moving limb segments must be taken into account within the motor command, and may affect the limb trajectory chosen to accomplish a given motor task. Exactly how the CNS deals with these gravitoinertial forces remains an(More)
This study compares the improvement and generalization of arm motor performance after physical or mental training in a motor task requiring a speed-accuracy tradeoff. During the pre- and post-training sessions, 40 subjects pointed with their right arm as accurately and as fast as possible toward targets placed in the frontal plane. Arm movements were(More)
Vertical arm pointing movements in two directions (upwards and downwards), imposing two different loads (unload and 0.5 kg) and speeds (normal and fast) have been studied in six subjects. Movements were recorded using an optoelectronic system. Data analysis concentrated upon finger-tip kinematics. Significant effects of movement direction were recorded upon(More)
The purpose of the present experiment was to study the way in which the central nervous system (CNS), represents gravitational force during vertical arm pointing movements. Movements in upward (against gravity) and downward (with gravity) directions, with two different mass loads (hand empty and with a hand-held 0.5-kg weight) were executed by eight(More)
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the features of center of mass (CoM) control along anterior/posterior axis in young and elderly subjects during sit-to-stand (STS). From a sitting position, seven healthy young subjects and seven healthy elderly subjects were asked to stand up from a chair under different experimental conditions (visual(More)
Several experiments have suggested that similar physiological substrates are involved in movement execution and motor imagery, and that the same laws of movement control apply to both processes. Using a mental chronometry paradigm, we examined the effects of movement direction and added mass on the duration of actual and imagined movements. Six subjects(More)
An important issue in motor control is understanding the basic principles underlying the accomplishment of natural movements. According to optimal control theory, the problem can be stated in these terms: what cost function do we optimize to coordinate the many more degrees of freedom than necessary to fulfill a specific motor goal? This question has not(More)
Hand reaching and bipedal equilibrium are two important functions of the human motor behavior. However, how the brain plans goal-oriented actions combining target reaching with equilibrium regulation is not yet clearly understood. An important question is whether postural control and reaching are integrated in one single module or controlled separately.(More)
Normal subjects were asked to make rapid flexions of the legs from a stationary initial standing posture in a self-paced mode. Because this movement implicates a rapid change in posture, questions were asked about the type of central command which must include the rupture of the erect posture and the accomplishment of the goal directed movement. Movements(More)