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We report the first saturated amplification of an optical-field-ionization soft x-ray laser. The amplifying medium is generated by focusing a circularly polarized 330-mJ, 35-fs, 10-Hz Ti:sapphire laser system in a few-mm cell filled with xenon. A gain of 67 cm(-1) on the 4d(9)5p-4d(9)5d transition at 41.8 nm in Pd-like xenon and a gain-length product of 15(More)
Electronic core levels in molecules are highly localized around one atomic site. However, in single-photon ionization of symmetric molecules, the question of core-hole localization versus delocalization over two equivalent atoms has long been debated as the answer lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here, using a joint experimental and theoretical study(More)
We have developed a new momentum spectrometer dedicated to momentum vector correlations in the context of deep core photoionization of atomic and molecular species in the gas phase. In this article, we describe the design and operation of the experimental setup. The capabilities of the apparatus are illustrated with a set of measurements done on the sulphur(More)
We experimentally observed interference effects in elastic x-ray scattering from gas-phase HCl in the vicinity of the Cl K edge. Comparison to theory identifies these effects as interference effects between non-resonant elastic Thomson scattering and resonant Raman scattering. The results indicate the non-resonant Thomson and resonant Raman contributions(More)
Argon 1s photoionization followed by multiple Auger decays is investigated both experimentally, by means of photoelectron-ion coincidences, and theoretically. A strong influence of the different Auger decays on the photoelectron spectra is observed through postcollision interaction which shifts the maximum of the energy distribution and distorts the(More)
Fatigue design of welded structures is primarily based on a nominal stress; hot spot stress methods or local approaches each having several limitations when coupled with finite element modeling. An alternative recent structural stress definition is discussed and implemented in a post-processor. It provides an effective means for the direct coupling of(More)
We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of isolated CH(3)Cl molecules using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS). The high-resolution spectra allow extraction of information about nuclear dynamics in the core-excited molecule. Polarization-resolved RIXS spectra exhibit linear dichroism in the spin-orbit intensities, a result(More)
We present measurements of the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra of the CH(3)I molecule in the hard-x-ray region near the iodine L(2) and L(3) absorption edges. We show that dispersive RIXS spectral features that were recognized as a fingerprint of dissociative molecular states can be interpreted in terms of ultrashort natural lifetime of(More)
We investigate the multiphoton ionization of NO2 using tunable (430-375 nm) femtosecond pulses and photoelectron-photoion coincidence momentum spectroscopy. In order to understand the complex electronic and nuclear photodynamics at play following absorption of three to five photons, we also report extended photoionization calculations using correlated(More)
We describe a bent-crystal spectrometer adapted to measure x-ray emission resulting from core-level excitation of gas-phase molecules in the 0.8-8 keV energy range. The spectrometer is based on the Johann principle, and uses a microfocused photon beam to provide high-resolution (resolving power of approximately 7500). A gas cell was designed to hold a(More)
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