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Dendritic spines contain high concentrations of actin, but neither the isoforms involved nor the mechanism of accumulation is known. In situ hybridization with specific probes established that beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic actins are selectively expressed at high levels by spine-bearing neurons. Transfecting cultured hippocampal neurons with epitope-tagged(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) exists in both high- and low-molecular mass isoforms, each of which has a tubulin-binding domain consisting of 3 imperfect tandem repeats of 31 amino acids containing a more highly conserved 18 amino acid 'core' sequence. We describe here a novel form of low molecular mass MAP2 (MAP2c) that contains an additional 4th(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 2c (MAP2c) is one of a set of embryonic MAP forms that are expressed during neuronal differentiation in the developing nervous system. We have investigated its mode of action by expressing recombinant protein in non-neuronal cell lines using cell cDNA transfection techniques. At every level of expression, all the MAP2c was(More)
The major neuronal microtubule-associated protein MAP2 is selectively localized in dendrites, where its expression is under strong developmental regulation. To learn more about its potential effects on neuronal morphogenesis and its sorting within the neuronal cytoplasm, we have raised transgenic mice that express high levels of the embryonic form, MAP2c,(More)
Vertebrate nonmuscle cells express two actin isoforms: cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin. Because of the presence and localized translation of β-actin at the leading edge, this isoform is generally accepted to specifically generate protrusive forces for cell migration. Recent evidence also implicates β-actin in gene regulation. Cell migration without β-actin has(More)
Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now(More)
We describe the construction of pBact-NGFP and pBact-CGFP, two expression vectors that incorporate green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a fluorescent tag at the N- or C terminus of the produced protein. When transfected into recipient cells, GFP-tagged proteins can be visualised in the living cells using standard fluorescence microscopy techniques. Using(More)
The most prominent microtubule-associated protein of the neuronal cytoskeleton is MAP2. In the brain it exists as a pair of high-molecular weight proteins, MAP2a and MAP2b, and a smaller form, MAP2c, which is particularly abundant in the developing brain. High-molecular weight MAP2 is expressed in dendrites, where its messenger RNA is also located, but is(More)
GABA(B) receptors are the G-protein-coupled receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA(B) receptors are broadly expressed in the nervous system. Their complete absence in mice causes premature lethality or--when mice are viable--epilepsy, impaired memory, hyperalgesia, hypothermia, and hyperactivity. A spatially and temporally restricted loss of GABA(B)(More)