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Dendritic spines contain high concentrations of actin, but neither the isoforms involved nor the mechanism of accumulation is known. In situ hybridization with specific probes established that beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic actins are selectively expressed at high levels by spine-bearing neurons. Transfecting cultured hippocampal neurons with epitope-tagged(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 2c (MAP2c) is one of a set of embryonic MAP forms that are expressed during neuronal differentiation in the developing nervous system. We have investigated its mode of action by expressing recombinant protein in non-neuronal cell lines using cell cDNA transfection techniques. At every level of expression, all the MAP2c was(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) exists in both high- and low-molecular mass isoforms, each of which has a tubulin-binding domain consisting of 3 imperfect tandem repeats of 31 amino acids containing a more highly conserved 18 amino acid 'core' sequence. We describe here a novel form of low molecular mass MAP2 (MAP2c) that contains an additional 4th(More)
GABA(B) receptors are the G-protein-coupled receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA. GABA(B) receptors are broadly expressed in the nervous system. Their complete absence in mice causes premature lethality or--when mice are viable--epilepsy, impaired memory, hyperalgesia, hypothermia, and hyperactivity. A spatially and temporally restricted loss of GABA(B)(More)
The most prominent microtubule-associated protein of the neuronal cytoskeleton is MAP2. In the brain it exists as a pair of high-molecular weight proteins, MAP2a and MAP2b, and a smaller form, MAP2c, which is particularly abundant in the developing brain. High-molecular weight MAP2 is expressed in dendrites, where its messenger RNA is also located, but is(More)
The major neuronal microtubule-associated protein MAP2 is selectively localized in dendrites, where its expression is under strong developmental regulation. To learn more about its potential effects on neuronal morphogenesis and its sorting within the neuronal cytoplasm, we have raised transgenic mice that express high levels of the embryonic form, MAP2c,(More)
In the developing brain microtubule-associated protein MAP2 occurs as both a high molecular weight form, MAP2b, which is present only in dendrites, and a low molecular weight form, MAP2c, which is also present in axons. Because the MAP2c amino acid sequence is entirely contained within that of MAP2b it is not possible to raise a MAP2c-specific antibody, so(More)
Generation of gain-of-function transgenic mice by targeting the Rosa26 locus has been established as an alternative to classical transgenic mice produced by pronuclear microinjection. However, targeting transgenes to the endogenous Rosa26 promoter results in moderate ubiquitous expression and is not suitable for high expression levels. Therefore, we now(More)
Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) is an abundant neuron-specific protein that binds to microtubules through a domain near its carboxyl terminus that contains either three or four similar repeats of a 31 amino acid motif. When expressed in non-neuronal cells by transfection MAP2 stabilises microtubules and induces their rearrangement into long bundles(More)
In fragile X syndrome (FXS), CGG repeat expansion greater than 200 triplets is believed to trigger FMR1 gene silencing and disease etiology. However, FXS siblings have been identified with more than 200 CGGs, termed unmethylated full mutation (UFM) carriers, without gene silencing and disease symptoms. Here, we show that hypomethylation of the FMR1 promoter(More)