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Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status. We investigated the potential role of AMPK in the hypothalamus in the(More)
Antecedent hypoglycemia blunts counterregulatory responses that normally restore glycemia, a phenomenon known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). The mechanisms leading to impaired counterregulatory responses are largely unknown. Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a glucose sensor. To determine whether failure to(More)
There is growing concern over confounding artifacts associated with β-cell-specific Cre-recombinase transgenic models, raising questions about their general usefulness in research. The inducible β-cell-specific transgenic (MIP-CreERT(1Lphi)) mouse was designed to circumvent many of these issues, and we investigated whether this tool effectively addressed(More)
OBJECTIVE The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and is activated by long-chain fatty acids. Gene deletion studies have shown that GPR40 mediates, at least in part, fatty acid-amplification of glucose-induced insulin secretion (GSIS) but is not implicated in GSIS itself. However, the role of GPR40 in the long-term effects(More)
Hypothalamic controls of energy balance rely on the detection of circulating nutrients such as glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) by the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). LCFA metabolism in the MBH plays a key role in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis, yet it is not known if glucose regulates LCFA oxidation and esterification in the MBH(More)
The adipose hormone leptin potently influences physical activity. Leptin can decrease locomotion and running, yet the mechanisms involved and the influence of leptin on the rewarding effects of running ("runner's high") are unknown. Leptin receptor (LepR) signaling involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), including(More)
Overconsumption of dietary fat is increasingly linked with motivational and emotional impairments. Human and animal studies demonstrate associations between obesity and blunted reward function at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear to what degree such changes are a consequence of an obese state and whether they are contingent on dietary lipid(More)
OBJECTIVE The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 mediates fatty acid potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, but its contribution to insulin secretion in vivo and mechanisms of action remain uncertain. This study was aimed to ascertain whether GPR40 controls insulin secretion in vivo and modulates intracellular fuel metabolism in islets. (More)
S ince its deorphanization in 2003 (1,2), the fatty acid receptor GPR40 (FFAR1/FFA1) has drawn considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Because fatty acids acutely amplify insulin secretion only in the presence of glucose, the discovery of a " drugable " cell surface receptor whose activation glucose-dependently enhances(More)