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Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status. We investigated the potential role of AMPK in the hypothalamus in the(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of cellular energy status, and recent data demonstrate that it also plays a critical role in systemic energy balance. AMPK integrates nutritional and hormonal signals in peripheral tissues and the hypothalamus. It mediates effects of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, and possibly(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy balance and of the effects of leptin on food intake and fatty acid oxidation. Obesity is usually associated with resistance to the effects of leptin on food intake and body weight. To determine whether diet-induced obesity (DIO) impairs the AMPK response to leptin in muscle and/or(More)
The physiological signaling mechanisms that link glucose sensing to the electrical activity in metabolism-regulating hypothalamus are still controversial. Although ATP production was considered the main metabolic signal, recent studies show that the glucose-stimulated signaling in neurons is not totally dependent on this production. Here, we examined(More)
Antecedent hypoglycemia blunts counterregulatory responses that normally restore glycemia, a phenomenon known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). The mechanisms leading to impaired counterregulatory responses are largely unknown. Hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a glucose sensor. To determine whether failure to(More)
Long-chain fatty acids amplify insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cell. The G-protein-coupled receptor GPR40 is specifically expressed in beta-cells and is activated by fatty acids; however, its role in acute regulation of insulin secretion in vivo remains unclear. To this aim, we generated GPR40 knockout (KO) mice and examined glucose homeostasis,(More)
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are targets of approximately 30% of currently marketed drugs. Over the last few years, a number of GPCRs expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and activated by lipids have been discovered. GPR40 was shown to be activated by medium- to long-chain fatty acids (FAs). It has since been shown that GPR40 contributes to FA(More)
There is growing concern over confounding artifacts associated with β-cell-specific Cre-recombinase transgenic models, raising questions about their general usefulness in research. The inducible β-cell-specific transgenic (MIP-CreERT(1Lphi)) mouse was designed to circumvent many of these issues, and we investigated whether this tool effectively addressed(More)
The adipose hormone leptin potently influences physical activity. Leptin can decrease locomotion and running, yet the mechanisms involved and the influence of leptin on the rewarding effects of running ("runner's high") are unknown. Leptin receptor (LepR) signaling involves activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), including(More)
Overconsumption of dietary fat is increasingly linked with motivational and emotional impairments. Human and animal studies demonstrate associations between obesity and blunted reward function at the behavioral and neural level, but it is unclear to what degree such changes are a consequence of an obese state and whether they are contingent on dietary lipid(More)