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Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification is characterized by mineral deposits in the brain, an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance in most cases and genetic heterogeneity. The first causal genes, SLC20A2 and PDGFRB, have recently been reported. Diagnosing idiopathic basal ganglia calcification necessitates the exclusion of other causes, including(More)
BACKGROUND The presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites (LN) has been demonstrated in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aims of the present research were to use routine colonoscopy biopsies (1) to analyze, in depth, enteric pathology throughout the colonic submucosal plexus (SMP), and (2) to correlate the(More)
Emerging evidences suggest that the enteric nervous system (ENS) is affected by the degenerative process in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition lesions in the ENS could be associated with gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, in particular constipation, observed in PD. However, the precise alterations of the ENS and especially the changes in the(More)
Aberrant phosphorylation of tau protein on serine and threonine residues has been shown to be critical in neurodegenerative disorders called tauopathies. An increasing amount of data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation of tau might play an equally important role in pathology, with at least three putative tyrosine kinases of tau identified to date. It was(More)
We have shown that routine biopsies of the ascending colon obtained at colonoscopy allow the detection of Lewy neurites (LN) in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although colonoscopy is a relatively safe procedure, it requires colon preparation and anesthesia. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate(More)
The recent demonstration of the presence of Lewy pathology in the submandibular glands of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients prompted us to evaluate the diagnostic performance of minor salivary gland biopsy for PD. Minor salivary glands were examined for Lewy pathology using phosphorylated alpha-synuclein antibody in 16 patients with clinically diagnosed PD(More)
Tau protein is the principal component of the neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where it is hyperphosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. It is hypothesized that this hyperphosphorylation contributes to neurodegeneration through the destabilization of microtubules. There is now evidence that phosphorylation of tau can also(More)
BACKGROUND The principal components of the enteric nervous system (ENS) are two neuronal networks, the myenteric and submucosal plexus (SMP), which are primarily involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility and secretion, respectively. These two plexus are made up of intrinsic neurons receiving input from the extrinsic sympathetic and(More)
OBJECTIVE The AMANDYSK trial was designed to assess long-term efficacy of chronic treatment with amantadine in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). METHODS This was a 3-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, wash-out study conducted in 57 amantadine-treated (≥200 mg/d for ≥6(More)
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. It has been classically considered that the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease, namely Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, affect primarily the substantia nigra. Nevertheless, it has become increasingly evident in recent years that Parkinson's disease is(More)