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alpha-Conotoxins are disulfide-rich peptides that are competitive antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Despite their small size, different alpha-conotoxins are able to discriminate among different subtypes of mammalian nAChRs. In this report, the activity of two peptides from the venom of Conus pennaceus, alpha-conotoxins PnIA and(More)
Activation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can induce the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine in the CNS. Accumulating evidence suggests that distinct nAChR subtypes are involved; however, it has been difficult to determine the subunit composition of these receptors, in part because of the lack of a(More)
Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted glycoprotein expressed in neurons and glia that is implicated in neuronal survival on the basis that mutations in the GRN gene causing haploinsufficiency result in a familial form of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Recently, a direct interaction between PGRN and tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR I/II) was reported and(More)
The major methodologies of crowd simulation in a dynamic environments are either based on micro or macro models. These two types of models represent the trade-off between the level of detail and efficiency. The domain of pedestrian flow simulation on road networks is no exception and theories rely either on equation based model or agent based models. There(More)
This paper presents a new intuitive method for robot tool path teaching in Augmented Reality (AR) environment. Conventional industrial robot teaching method is long known to be either tedious or require a highly accurate virtual representation of robot work cell. Our method targets to provide the user with a fast and easy way of programming an industrial(More)
The exact biological role of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in the central nervous system (CNS) is not well understood; but overproduction of TNF by activated microglia has been implicated in neuronal death, suggesting that TNF inhibition in the CNS may be a viable neuroprotective strategy. We investigated the role of TNF signaling in regulation(More)
Aging is the predominant risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. One key phenotype as the brain ages is an aberrant innate immune response characterized by proinflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying aging-associated proinflammation are poorly defined. Whether chronic inflammation plays a causal role in cognitive decline in aging and(More)
Complex interactions involving genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are thought to underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although the role of inflammatory processes in modulating risk for development of PD has yet to be fully understood, prospective studies suggest that chronic use of NSAIDs reduce the incidence of PD.(More)
Dissipative solitons have been reported in a wide range of nonlinear systems, but the observation of their magnetic analog has been experimentally challenging. Using spin transfer torque underneath a nanocontact on a magnetic thin film with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), we have observed the generation of dissipative magnetic droplet solitons and(More)
Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein, and the GRN gene is mutated in some cases of frontotemporal dementia. Progranulin has also been implicated in cell growth, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. We investigated the molecular nature of secreted progranulin and provide evidence that progranulin exists as a homodimer. Although recombinant progranulin(More)