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Abstract High-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) is a protein with both intranuclear functions and extracellular cytokine-like effects. In this report, we study possible candidate receptors for HMGB1 on macrophages (Mphi) and define pathways activated by HMGB1 binding. Bone marrow Mphi were prepared from Dark Agouti (DA) rats and stimulated in(More)
The nuclear protein HMGB1 has previously been demonstrated to act as an alarmin and to promote inflammation upon extracellular release, yet its mode of action is still not well defined. Access to highly purified HMGB1 preparations from prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources enabled studies of activation of human PBMC or synovial fibroblast cultures in response(More)
OBJECTIVE High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1) is a DNA binding nuclear protein that can be released from dying cells and activated myeloid cells. Extracellularly, HMGB-1 promotes inflammation. Clinical and experimental studies demonstrate that HMGB-1 is a pathogenic factor in chronic arthritis. Mice with combined gene deficiency for DNase(More)
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are heterogeneous rheumatic disorders of unknown cause characterized by muscle weakness, inflammatory cell infiltrates, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression on muscle fibers. The nonhistone nuclear protein alarmin high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) has been detected extranuclearly in(More)
Gold compounds such as gold sodium thiomalate (GST) can reduce the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although their mechanism of action is not well defined. As the proinflammatory mediator high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA, we have performed in vitro studies to investigate whether GST(More)
1. During just-suprathreshold synaptic activation of CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampal slices in vitro the action potential begins as a slow depolarizing ramp, superimposed on the underlying EPSP and forming an integral part of the action potential. We call this ramp a synaptic prepotential (SyPP). 2. In order to examine the SyPP, a procedure for(More)
OBJECTIVE Progressive muscle weakness is a common feature in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known about whether the intrinsic contractile properties of muscle fibers are affected in RA. This study was undertaken to investigate muscle contractility and the myoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) in the soleus, a major(More)
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