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The regular arrangement of leaves around a plant's stem, called phyllotaxis, has for centuries attracted the attention of philosophers, mathematicians and natural scientists; however, to date, studies of phyllotaxis have been largely theoretical. Leaves and flowers are formed from the shoot apical meristem, triggered by the plant hormone auxin. Auxin is(More)
A striking phenomenon unique to the kingdom of plants is the regular arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis, known as phyllotaxis. Recent molecular-genetic experiments indicate that active transport of the plant hormone auxin is the key process regulating phyllotaxis. A conceptual model based on these experiments, introduced by Reinhardt et al.(More)
BACKGROUND The phytohormone auxin is a primary regulator of growth and developmental pattern formation in plants. Auxin accumulates at specific sites (e.g., organ primordia) and induces localized growth within a tissue. Auxin also mediates developmental responses to intrinsic and external physical stimuli; however, exactly how mechanics influences auxin(More)
Rapid pollen tube growth places unique demands on energy production and biosynthetic capacity. The aim of this work is to understand how primary metabolism meets the demands of such rapid growth. Aerobically grown pollen produce ethanol in large quantities. The ethanolic fermentation pathway consists of two committed enzymes: pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC)(More)
Most flowering plants depend on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. Differential pollinator preferences lead to premating isolation and thus reduced gene flow between interbreeding plant populations. Sets of floral traits, adapted to attract specific pollinator guilds, are called pollination syndromes. Shifts in pollination syndromes have(More)
The interactions of plants with their pollinators are thought to be a driving force in the evolution of angiosperms. Adaptation to a new pollinator involves coordinated changes in multiple floral traits controlled by multiple genes. Surprisingly, such complex genetic shifts have happened numerous times during evolution. Here we report on the genetic basis(More)
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