Learn More
The regular arrangement of leaves around a plant's stem, called phyllotaxis, has for centuries attracted the attention of philosophers, mathematicians and natural scientists; however, to date, studies of phyllotaxis have been largely theoretical. Leaves and flowers are formed from the shoot apical meristem, triggered by the plant hormone auxin. Auxin is(More)
A striking phenomenon unique to the kingdom of plants is the regular arrangement of lateral organs around a central axis, known as phyllotaxis. Recent molecular-genetic experiments indicate that active transport of the plant hormone auxin is the key process regulating phyllotaxis. A conceptual model based on these experiments, introduced by Reinhardt et al.(More)
The plant hormone auxin mediates developmental patterning by a mechanism that is based on active transport. In the shoot apical meristem, auxin gradients are thought to be set up through a feedback loop between auxin and the activity and polar localization of its transporter, the PIN1 protein. Two distinct molecular mechanisms for the subcellular(More)
BACKGROUND The phytohormone auxin is a primary regulator of growth and developmental pattern formation in plants. Auxin accumulates at specific sites (e.g., organ primordia) and induces localized growth within a tissue. Auxin also mediates developmental responses to intrinsic and external physical stimuli; however, exactly how mechanics influences auxin(More)
Rapid pollen tube growth places unique demands on energy production and biosynthetic capacity. The aim of this work is to understand how primary metabolism meets the demands of such rapid growth. Aerobically grown pollen produce ethanol in large quantities. The ethanolic fermentation pathway consists of two committed enzymes: pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC)(More)
Most flowering plants depend on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. Differential pollinator preferences lead to premating isolation and thus reduced gene flow between interbreeding plant populations. Sets of floral traits, adapted to attract specific pollinator guilds, are called pollination syndromes. Shifts in pollination syndromes have(More)
Expansins are extracellular proteins that increase plant cell wall extensibility in vitro and are thought to be involved in cell expansion. We showed in a previous study that administration of an exogenous expansin protein can trigger the initiation of leaflike structures on the shoot apical meristem of tomato. Here, we studied the expression patterns of(More)
A class I histocompatibility gene, H-2Kb, linked to the rat insulin promoter, is overexpressed in the pancreatic beta cells of transgenic mice. The mice, whether syngeneic or allogeneic to the transgene, develop insulin dependent diabetes without detectable T cell infiltration, suggesting a direct, non-immune role for the transgenic class I molecules in the(More)
The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse develops insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) with mononuclear cell infiltration of the islets of Langerhans and selective destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells, as in humans. Most infiltrating cells are T lymphocytes, and most of these carry the CD4 antigen. Adoptive transfer of T cells from diabetic NOD(More)
In semisolid agar cultures containing mercaptoethanol, cells from the spleen, lymph nodes, marrow, peritoneal cavity, thoracic duct, and blood of normal mice generated clusters and colonies of up to 3,000 cells. Colony numbers and growth were markedly enhanced by the addition of sheep red cells. The frequency of colony-forming cells in the spleen or lymph(More)