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It is now well-documented that exposures to uncontrollable (inescapable and unpredictable) stress in adulthood can have profound effects on brain and behavior. Converging lines of evidence from human and animal studies indicate that stress interferes with subsequent performances on a variety of hippocampal-dependent memory tasks. Animal studies further(More)
Apoptosis has been proposed as a contributing cellular mechanism to the structural alterations that have been observed in stress-related mood disorders. Antidepressants, on the other hand, are hypothesized to exert trophic and/or neuroprotective actions. The present study examined the regulation of the major antiapoptotic (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl) and proapoptotic(More)
OBJECTIVE The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is associated with cognitive and P50 auditory gating deficits in schizophrenia, and α7 nAChR agonists can potentially reverse these deficits. The authors examined multiple dosages of tropisetron, a partial agonist at the nAChR, for short-term effects on cognition and P50 deficits in schizophrenia. (More)
Current research suggests there are genetic differences in susceptibility to drug abuse. One way to examine this relationship is to study inbred strains, such as Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats, that show differential biochemical and behavioral effects in response to psychoactive drugs. In the present study several behavioral effects of cocaine were(More)
Lewis and Fischer inbred rat strains differ in behavioral and biochemical responses to psychoactive drugs: Lewis rats show greater behavioral responses to psychoactive drugs than Fischer rats and they fail to show biochemical adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine system after chronic drug exposure, in contrast to Fischer and outbred rats. This suggests(More)
We demonstrated that neonatal isolation (1-h pup isolation; postnatal days 2-9) impairs context-induced fear conditioning in adult male rats and tends to enhance this effect and foot shock sensitivity in females. In this study, we examine the effects of brief (i.e., handling; 15 min) and prolonged (3 h) maternal separations (postnatal days 1-21) on fear(More)
Clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist, is used to alleviate withdrawal severity during detoxification from chronic opiate use. The effectiveness of clonidine has been challenged because it attenuates some, but not all, withdrawal signs in humans and animals. Because somatic assessments may not reflect opiate withdrawal aversion, this study used a(More)
We studied levels of neurofilament (NF) proteins in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and other regions of the central nervous system, of two genetically inbred rat strains, Lewis (LEW) and Fischer (F344) rats. These strains represent genetically divergent populations of rats that have been used to study possible genetic factors involved in a variety of(More)
BACKGROUND Norepinephrine is implicated in cocaine's behavioral effects. In this study, we tested the effect of prazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. METHODS Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine intravenously under a fixed-ratio 3 schedule of reinforcement. After behavior was(More)
We showed previously that neonatal isolation (ISO) enhances acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult male rats without altering acquisition of food responding. Female rats show poorer performance in learning tasks and are differentially affected by stress compared to male rats. Thus, we investigated whether ISO alters acquisition of operant(More)