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Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are selected or designed to eliminate malignancies by direct infection and lysis of cancer cells. In contrast to this concept of direct tumor lysis by viral infection, we observed that a significant portion of the in vivo tumor killing activity of two OVs, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and vaccinia virus is caused by indirect(More)
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been engineered or selected for cancer cell-specific infection however, we have found that following intravenous administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), tumor cell killing rapidly extends far beyond the initial sites of infection. We show here for the first time that VSV directly infects and destroys tumor(More)
This study characterizes the ability of novel oncolytic rhabdoviruses (Maraba MG1) to boost natural killer (NK) cell activity. Our results demonstrate that MG1 activates NK cells via direct infection and maturation of conventional dendritic cells. Using NK depletion and conventional dendritic cells ablation studies in vivo, we established that both are(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the postoperative hypercoagulable state is responsible for the increase in metastases observed after surgery. BACKGROUND Surgery precipitates a hypercoagulable state and increases the formation of cancer metastases in animal models. Coagulation promotes metastases by facilitating the formation of microthrombi around tumor(More)
Natural killer (NK) cell clearance of tumor cell emboli following surgery is thought to be vital in preventing postoperative metastases. Using a mouse model of surgical stress, we transferred surgically stressed NK cells into NK-deficient mice and observed enhanced lung metastases in tumor-bearing mice as compared with mice that received untreated NK cells.(More)
Creation of potent oncolytic viruses (OVs) suitable for the clinic may require new strategies in virus design. Replication-competent viruses facilitate a variety of approaches to achieving tumor specificity. Altered expression of microRNAs is a common hallmark of cancer that we demonstrate can be used to alter expression of a potent wild-type viral gene to(More)
It has been well established that the tumor microenvironment can promote tumor cell adaptation and survival. However, the mechanisms that influence malignant progression have not been clearly elucidated. We have previously demonstrated that cells cultured under hypoxic/anoxic conditions and transformed cells in hypoxic areas of tumors activate a(More)
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown promising clinical activity when administered by direct intratumoral injection. However, natural barriers in the blood, including antibodies and complement, are likely to limit the ability to repeatedly administer OVs by the intravenous route. We demonstrate here that for a prototype of the clinical vaccinia virus based(More)
Oncolytic viruses are generally designed to be cancer selective on the basis of a single genetic mutation. JX-594 is a thymidine kinase (TK) gene-inactivated oncolytic vaccinia virus expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and lac-Z transgenes that is designed to destroy cancer cells through replication-dependent cell lysis and(More)
JX-594 is a targeted and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expressing oncolytic poxvirus designed to selectively replicate in and destroy cancer cells through viral oncolysis and tumor-specific immunity. In a phase 1 trial, JX-594 injection into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was well-tolerated and associated with viral replication,(More)