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BACKGROUND There have been no studies showing that participation in programmes which provide legal access to drug-injection equipment leads to individual-level protection against incident HIV infection. We have compared HIV incidence among injecting drug users participating in syringe-exchange programmes in New York City with that among non-participants. (More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to estimate HIV incidence among injection drug users (IDUs) in New York City from 1990 to 2002 to assess the impact of an expansion of syringe exchange services. Syringe exchange increased greatly during this period, from 250,000 to 3,000,000 syringes exchanged annually. METHODS Serum samples were obtained from serial cross-sectional(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine HIV risk behavior and HIV infection among new initiates into illicit drug injection in New York City. DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional surveys of injecting drug users (IDUs) recruited from a large detoxification treatment program (n=2489) and a street store-front research site (n=2630) in New York City from 1990 through 1996.(More)
Using trypsin Giemsa banding (GTG), major polymorphisms of the constitutive heterochromatin regions of chromosome 1, 9, 16, and Y were recorded in a New York City population. Polymorphisms were recorded from amniotic fluid specimens received from 6,250 patients from 4 major population groups, ie, White (European)-2,334 cases, American Black-1,795 cases,(More)
The survey of the incidence of chromosome mosaicism and pseudomosaicism detected in prenatal diagnosis included data from approximately 60 000 genetic amniocenteses in the United States. There were 59 participating cytogenetic laboratories nationwide. The overall incidence of chromosome mosaicism was 0.25 per cent (range of 0-0.89 per cent). The average(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare HIV prevalence among injecting and non-injecting heroin and cocaine users in New York City. As HIV is efficiently transmitted through the sharing of drug-injecting equipment, HIV infection has historically been higher among injecting drug users. DESIGN Two separate cross-sectional surveys, both with HIV counseling and testing and drug(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess trends in HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV/HCV infection among injecting drug users (IDU) from 1990 to 2001 in New York City. The 1990-2001 time period included a very large expansion of syringe exchange in New York City, from 250,000 to 3,000,000 syringes exchanged annually. METHODS Cross-sectional seroprevalence surveys of IDU(More)
AIMS To assess audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (A-CASI) as a mode of data collection with injecting drug users (IDUs) entering two drug treatment programs in New York City. A-CASI has been found to increase reporting of sensitive items among a variety of population subgroups. DESIGN A field test of A-CASI data collection conducted within an(More)
We analyzed data from 6341 injection drug users (IDUs) entering detoxification or methadone maintenance treatment in New York City between 1990 and 2004 to test the hypothesis that alcohol use and intoxication is associated with increased HIV sexual risk behaviors. Two types of associations were assessed: (1) a global association (i.e., the relationship(More)
The objective of the research was to assess the effects of geographic proximity on the utilization of syringe exchange among injection drug users (IDUs) in New York City. Between 1994 and 1996, 805 IDUs were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Geographic proximity was defined as living within a ten-minute walk. Eighty-one per cent of IDUs who lived(More)