Theresa Chang

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Increased hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) flux and elevated levels of protein O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) decrease calcium influx into isolated cardiomyocytes. Increased O-GlcNAc levels also increase tolerance of cells to stress. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing HBP flux and protein O-GlcNAc(More)
Alpha-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and play an important role in innate immunity. We have previously shown that alpha-defensin-1 can inhibit HIV-1 replication following viral entry. Here we examined the molecular mechanism(s) of alpha-defensin-1-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. Alpha-defensin-1 had a direct effect(More)
Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides that are produced by leukocytes and epithelial cells, and that have an important role in innate immunity. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of the antiviral action(s) of defensins indicate that they have a dual role in antiviral defence, acting directly on the virion and on the host cell. This Review(More)
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by secreting a soluble factor(s) known as CD8(+) T-lymphocyte antiviral factor (CAF). One site of CAF action is inhibition of HIV-1 RNA transcription, particularly at the step of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven gene expression. The inhibitory effect of CAF on HIV-1(More)
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by secreting a soluble factor(s) known as CD8(+) T-lymphocyte antiviral factor (CAF). One site of CAF action is inhibition of HIV-1 RNA transcription, particularly at the step of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven gene expression. However, the mechanism by which CAF(More)
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. Defensins are part of the innate mucosal immune response to STIs and therefore we investigated their role in HIV infection. We found that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6) promoted HIV infection, and this effect was primarily during viral entry. Enhancement was seen with(More)
The innate immune system mounts the first host response to pathogens. Because alpha-defensins, which are cationic antimicrobial peptides of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and other leukocytes, are important effectors of the innate immune system, we studied the antiviral activity of human alpha-defensin-1 (also known as "human neutrophil peptide-1" [HNP-1])(More)
Drugs that potentiate transmission at GABA(A) receptors are widely used to enhance sleep and to cause general anesthesia. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) of mouse modulate five phenotypes of arousal: sleep and wakefulness, cortical(More)
Concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. The levels of defensins are frequently elevated in genital fluids from individuals with STIs. We have previously shown that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6) promote HIV entry and contribute to Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated enhancement of HIV infectivity in(More)