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The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatid protozoa, termed kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is unique in its structure, function, and mode of replication. kDNA is a massive network, composed of thousands of topologically interlocked DNA circles, which resembles the chain mail of medieval armor. Each cell contains one network condensed into a disk-shaped structure(More)
Isothiocyanates and their naturally occurring glucosinolate precursors are widely consumed as part of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables. When plant cells are damaged, glucosinolates are released and converted to isothiocyanates by the enzyme myrosinase. Many isothiocyanates inhibit the neoplastic effects of various carcinogens at a number of organ(More)
The isothiocyanate sulforaphane was isolated from broccoli extracts in a bioactivity-guided fractionation as the principal and very potent inducer of cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes and subsequently shown to inhibit tumor development in animal models that involve various carcinogens and target organs. Because broccoli and broccoli sprouts are widely(More)
These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the diagnostic evaluation of suspected lung cancer. This topic was the subject of a major update in the 2013 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates in the NCCN Guidelines and discuss the new updates in(More)
Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates that induce phase 2 detoxication enzymes, boost antioxidant status, and protect animals against chemically induced cancer. Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinase (an enzyme found in plants and bowel microflora) to form isothiocyanates. In vivo, isothiocyanates are conjugated with(More)
In only two steps and in 70% overall yield, naturally occurring trioxane artemisinin (1) was converted on a gram scale into C-10-carba trioxane dimer 3. This new, very stable dimer was then transformed easily in one additional step into four different dimers 4-7. Alcohol and diol dimers 4 and 5 and ketone dimer 7 are 10 times more antimalarially potent in(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a homolog of the mammalian histamine-releasing factor (HRF), which causes histamine release from human basophils and IL-8 secretion from eosinophils. Histamine, IL-8, and eosinophils have been reported to be elevated in patients with malaria. This study was undertaken to determine(More)
  • T A Shapiro
  • 1993
Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), the mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomes, is an enormous network of interlocked minicircles and maxicircles. We selectively removed minicircles from Trypanosoma equiperdum kDNA networks by restriction enzyme cleavage. Maxicircles remained in aggregates that were resistant to protease or RNase and contained no residual minicircles, but(More)
The trypanosomes and Leishmania species are parasitic protozoa that afflict millions of people throughout the world. If not treated, African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are fatal. The available drugs are severely limited by toxicity, marginal efficacy, the requirement for parenteral administration, and spreading drug resistance. In this(More)
On the basis of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action of artemisinin-like antimalarials, a series of structurally simple 3-aryl-1,2,4-trioxanes 5 was designed and was prepared in three to five operations from commercial reactants. The 3-aryl group was attached in each case as a nucleophile. In an electronically complementary fashion,(More)