Theresa A. Shapiro

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Isothiocyanates and their naturally occurring glucosinolate precursors are widely consumed as part of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables. When plant cells are damaged, glucosinolates are released and converted to isothiocyanates by the enzyme myrosinase. Many isothiocyanates inhibit the neoplastic effects of various carcinogens at a number of organ(More)
Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates that induce phase 2 detoxication enzymes, boost antioxidant status, and protect animals against chemically induced cancer. Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinase (an enzyme found in plants and bowel microflora) to form isothiocyanates. In vivo, isothiocyanates are conjugated with(More)
The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatid protozoa, termed kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is unique in its structure, function, and mode of replication. kDNA is a massive network, composed of thousands of topologically interlocked DNA circles, which resembles the chain mail of medieval armor. Each cell contains one network condensed into a disk-shaped structure(More)
The isothiocyanate sulforaphane was isolated from broccoli extracts in a bioactivity-guided fractionation as the principal and very potent inducer of cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes and subsequently shown to inhibit tumor development in animal models that involve various carcinogens and target organs. Because broccoli and broccoli sprouts are widely(More)
Broccoli sprouts are widely consumed in many parts of the world. There have been no reported concerns with respect to their tolerance and safety in humans. A formal phase I study of safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics appeared justified because these sprouts are being used as vehicles for the delivery of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin and its cognate(More)
These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates in the 2016 NCCN Guidelines for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC; Versions 1-4). These NCCN Guidelines Insights will discuss new immunotherapeutic agents, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, for patients with metastatic NSCLC. For the 2016 update, the NCCN panel recommends immune checkpoint inhibitors(More)
BACKGROUND Humans are exposed to substantial quantities of isothiocyanates and glucosinolates from vegetables. Since dietary isothiocyanates are widely regarded as potentially important chemoprotectors against cancer, reliable methods for measuring the plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of isothiocyanates and their dithiocarbamate metabolites are essential(More)
In only two steps and in 70% overall yield, naturally occurring trioxane artemisinin (1) was converted on a gram scale into C-10-carba trioxane dimer 3. This new, very stable dimer was then transformed easily in one additional step into four different dimers 4-7. Alcohol and diol dimers 4 and 5 and ketone dimer 7 are 10 times more antimalarially potent in(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a homolog of the mammalian histamine-releasing factor (HRF), which causes histamine release from human basophils and IL-8 secretion from eosinophils. Histamine, IL-8, and eosinophils have been reported to be elevated in patients with malaria. This study was undertaken to determine(More)
Parasites pose a threat to the health and lives of many millions of human beings. Among the pathogenic protozoa, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania donovani are hemoflagellates that cause particularly serious diseases (sleeping sickness, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, respectively). The drugs currently available to treat these(More)