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The mitochondrial DNA of trypanosomatid protozoa, termed kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), is unique in its structure, function, and mode of replication. kDNA is a massive network, composed of thousands of topologically interlocked DNA circles, which resembles the chain mail of medieval armor. Each cell contains one network condensed into a disk-shaped structure(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a homolog of the mammalian histamine-releasing factor (HRF), which causes histamine release from human basophils and IL-8 secretion from eosinophils. Histamine, IL-8, and eosinophils have been reported to be elevated in patients with malaria. This study was undertaken to determine(More)
These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the diagnostic evaluation of suspected lung cancer. This topic was the subject of a major update in the 2013 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on the major updates in the NCCN Guidelines and discuss the new updates in(More)
Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates that induce phase 2 detoxication enzymes, boost antioxidant status, and protect animals against chemically induced cancer. Glucosinolates are hydrolyzed by myrosinase (an enzyme found in plants and bowel microflora) to form isothiocyanates. In vivo, isothiocyanates are conjugated with(More)
In only two steps and in 70% overall yield, naturally occurring trioxane artemisinin (1) was converted on a gram scale into C-10-carba trioxane dimer 3. This new, very stable dimer was then transformed easily in one additional step into four different dimers 4-7. Alcohol and diol dimers 4 and 5 and ketone dimer 7 are 10 times more antimalarially potent in(More)
The trypanosomes and Leishmania species are parasitic protozoa that afflict millions of people throughout the world. If not treated, African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are fatal. The available drugs are severely limited by toxicity, marginal efficacy, the requirement for parenteral administration, and spreading drug resistance. In this(More)
The isothiocyanate sulforaphane was isolated from broccoli extracts in a bioactivity-guided fractionation as the principal and very potent inducer of cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes and subsequently shown to inhibit tumor development in animal models that involve various carcinogens and target organs. Because broccoli and broccoli sprouts are widely(More)
The syntheses and in vitro antimalarial screening of 50 bridged, bicyclic endoperoxides of types 9-13 are reported. In contrast to antimalarial trioxanes of the artemisinin family, but like yingzhaosu A and arteflene, the peroxide function of compounds 9-13 is contained in a 2,3-dioxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane system 6. Peroxides 9 and 10 (R(1) = OH) are readily(More)
In four or five chemical steps from the 1,2,4-trioxane artemisinin, a new series of 23 trioxane dimers has been prepared. Eleven of these new trioxane dimers cure malaria-infected mice via oral dosing at 3 x 30 mg/kg. The clinically used trioxane drug sodium artesunate prolonged mouse average survival to 7.2 days with this oral dose regimen. In comparison,(More)
Topoisomerases are essential for orderly nucleic acid metabolism and cell survival and are proven targets for clinically useful antimicrobial and anticancer drugs. Interest in the topologically intricate mitochondrial DNA (kinetoplast or kDNA) of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and related kinetoplastid protozoan parasites has led to many reports of type II(More)