Theoklis E. Zaoutis

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BACKGROUND Invasive fungal diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Clarity and uniformity in defining these infections are important factors in improving the quality of clinical studies. A standard set of definitions strengthens the consistency and reproducibility of such studies. METHODS After the introduction of the original European(More)
BACKGROUND Zygomycosis is an increasingly emerging life-threatening infection. There is no single comprehensive literature review that describes the epidemiology and outcome of this disease. METHODS We reviewed reports of zygomycosis in the English-language literature since 1885 and analyzed 929 eligible cases. We included in the database only those cases(More)
Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections.(More)
It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made(More)
BACKGROUND Candida species are the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infection and are the leading cause of invasive fungal infection among hospitalized patients in the United States. However, the frequency and outcomes attributable to the infection are uncertain. This retrospective study set out to estimate the incidence of candidemia in hospitalized(More)
CONTEXT The evidence regarding risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and the risks and benefits of antimicrobial prophylaxis in children is scant. OBJECTIVES To identify risk factors for recurrent UTI in a pediatric primary care cohort, to determine the association between antimicrobial prophylaxis and recurrent UTI, and to identify the(More)
Bartonella henselae was discovered a quarter of a century ago as the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a clinical entity described in the literature for more than half a century. As diagnostic techniques improve, our knowledge of the spectrum of clinical disease resulting from infection with Bartonella is expanding. This review summarizes current(More)
OBJECTIVE Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults. Recently, the incidence and severity of C difficile-associated disease in adults have been increasing. Whether similar phenomena are occurring among children remains unknown. Our study describes the epidemiological features of C difficile-associated(More)
BACKGROUND Zygomycosis has emerged as an increasingly important infection with a high mortality especially in immunocompromised patients. No comprehensive analysis of pediatric zygomycosis cases has been published to date. METHODS We used a PUBMED search for English publications of pediatric (0-18 years) zygomycosis cases and references from major books(More)
BACKGROUND Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in hospitalized children and are the third most common isolates recovered from patients with healthcare-associated bloodstream infection in the United States. Few data exist on risk factors for candidemia in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. METHODS We conducted a(More)