Theodore S. Steiner

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Richard L. Guerrant, Thomas Van Gilder, Ted S. Steiner, Nathan M. Thielman, Laurence Slutsker, Robert V. Tauxe, Thomas Hennessy, Patricia M. Griffin, Herbert DuPont, R. Bradley Sack, Phillip Tarr, Marguerite Neill, Irving Nachamkin, L. Barth Reller, Michael T. Osterholm, Michael L. Bennish, and Larry K. Pickering University of Virginia, Charlottesville;(More)
Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is currently thought to be the most specific marker for naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells (nTregs). In mice, expression of FoxP3 is strictly correlated with regulatory activity, whereas increasing evidence suggests that in humans, activated T effector cells (Teffs) may also express FOXP3. In order to better define(More)
Germline encoded pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs, provide a critical link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. There is also evidence to suggest that pathogen-associated molecular patterns may have the capacity to modulate immune responses via direct effects on CD4+ T cells. Given the key role of both CD4+CD25+ T regulatory (Treg)(More)
Two related chronic inflammatory diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are together often referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Current treatment options are not curative, and patients face lifelong therapy and debilitation. IBD is thought to be the product of a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in the(More)
Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) are emerging as an important cause of persistent diarrhea, especially in children in the developing world, yet the pathogenesis of EAggEC infection is poorly understood. In an ongoing prospective study of childhood diarrhea in an urban Brazilian slum, EAggEC are the leading cause of persistent diarrhea. Children from this(More)
IMPORTANCE Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major burden in health care and community settings. CDI recurrence is of particular concern because of limited treatment options and associated clinical and infection control issues. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising, but not readily available, intervention. OBJECTIVE To determine(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium belong to the attaching and effacing (A/E) family of bacterial pathogens. These noninvasive bacteria infect intestinal enterocytes using a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), leading to diarrheal disease and intestinal inflammation. While flagellin, the secreted product of(More)
FOXP3-expressing T regulatory cells (Tregs) can be divided into two distinct subsets: naturally occurring Tregs (nTregs) that develop in the thymus, and induced Tregs (iTregs) that differentiate in peripheral tissues upon exposure to Ag in a tolerogenic environment. Recently it has been proposed that expression of Helios, an Ikaros family transcription(More)
T regulatory (Treg) cells are critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and establishing tolerance to foreign, non-pathogenic antigens including those found in commensal bacteria and food. Because of their multiple suppressive mechanisms, Tregs represent a promising strategy for engineering tolerance to self and non-self antigens in chronic inflammatory(More)
Flagellin is the major structural protein of the flagella of Gram-negative bacteria. Recent work has demonstrated that flagellin is a potent trigger of innate immune responses in a number of eukaryotic cells and organisms, including both mammals and plants. In several different human epithelial cell lines, this innate immune response involves toll-like(More)