Theodore P. Hill

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Near a stable fixed point at 0 or ∞, many real-valued dynamical systems follow Benford's law: under iteration of a map T the proportion of values in {x, T (x), T 2 (x),. .. , T n (x)} with mantissa (base b) less than t tends to log b t for all t in [1, b) as n → ∞, for all integer bases b > 1. In particular , the orbits under most power, exponential, and(More)
are probability measures on the same measurable space (2, Y). Then if all atoms of each Ai have mass a or less, there is a measurable partition Al,..., An of 2 so that pxi(Ai) 2 Vn(a) for all i = 1, ..., n, where Vn(.) is an explicitly given piecewise linear nonincreasing continuous function on [0,1]. Moreover, the bound Vn(a) is attained for all n and all(More)
Suppose fix,... ,fin are nonatomic probability measures on the same measurable space (S, S). Then there exists a measurable partition isi}"=i of 5 such that Pi(Si) > (n + 1 M)'1 for a11 i l,...,n, where M is the total mass of V?=i ßi (tne smallest measure majorizing each m). This inequality is the best possible for the functional M, and sharpens and(More)
The pointwise limit S of a sequence of Stieltjes transforms (S n) of real Borel probability measures (P n) is itself the Stieltjes transform of a Borel p.m. P if and only if iy S(iy) → −1 as y → ∞, in which case P n converges to P in distribution. Applications are given to several problems in mathematical physics. probability measures. Lévy's classical(More)
A derivation of Benford's Law or the First-Digit Phenomenon is given assuming only base-invariance of the underlying law. The only base-invariant distributions are shown to be convex combinations of two extremal probabilities, one corresponding to point mass and the other a log-Lebesgue measure. The main tools in the proof are identification of an(More)
Drawing from a large, diverse body of work, this survey presents a comprehensive and unified introduction to the mathematics underlying the prevalent logarithmic distribution of significant digits and significands, often referred to as Benford's Law (BL) or, in a special case, as the First Digit Law. The invariance properties that characterize BL are(More)
1. INTRODUCTION. In scientific calculations using digital computers and f1oating-point arithmetic, roundoff errors are inevitable, even with the most elementary of functions. For example, a very simple, hypothetical computer with only one decimal point precision, equipped with the IEEE Stand~d "Unbiase5!" Roundin& approximates the function f(x) = x 2 with a(More)
The distance from the convex hull of the range of an n-dimensional vector-valued measure to the range of that measure is no more than an/2, where a is the largest (one-dimensional) mass of the atoms of the measure. The case a = 0 yields Lyapounov's Convexity Theorem; applications are given to the bisection problem and to the bang-bang principle of optimal(More)