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As part of an effort to examine gender-related differences in the abuse liability of morphine, the present parametric study was undertaken to systematically establish whether there are gender-related differences in the antinociceptive activity of morphine in rats. Our results showed that male rats were uniformly more sensitive to the antinociceptive(More)
The purpose of the present studies was to determine the role of either the organizational or activational sex steroids in mediating the sex differences observed in morphine-induced antinociception in the rat. To examine the organizational aspects, male pups were castrated at postnatal days 1 and 2; females were masculinized by large doses of testosterone on(More)
Gender differences have been observed in a number of aspects of the pharmacology of opiates, including their antinociceptive activity, discriminative stimulus properties, the generation of physical dependence, and their positive reinforcing properties. The current experiments were carried out to rigorously examine whether gender differences exist in the(More)
This study was designed to examine the effects of self-administered cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in rhesus monkeys. Initially, basal release of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was measured in singly housed male and female monkeys (n = 9) over a 24-h period using plasma samples obtained from indwelling venous(More)
Earlier studies of cocaine's effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis used nonresponse-contingent designs in which the investigator determined dose, timing, and route of administration. It is important to evaluate whether "control" over cocaine delivery is a significant determinant of cocaine's HPA axis effect. This study measured cocaine's(More)
IMPORTANCE Over the past several years, there have been a number of mainstream media reports that the abuse of heroin has migrated from low-income urban areas with large minority populations to more affluent suburban and rural areas with primarily white populations. OBJECTIVE To examine the veracity of these anecdotal reports and define the relationship(More)
IMPORTANCE In an effort to reduce wide-scale abuse of the proprietary oxycodone hydrochloride formulation OxyContin, an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) was introduced in 2010. Although the reformulation produced an immediate drop in abuse rates, a definite ceiling effect appeared over time, beyond which no further decrease was seen. OBJECTIVE To examine(More)
In earlier studies, it was shown that there were gender differences in several aspects of the pharmacological profile of morphine, including its antinociceptive activity, discriminative stimulus properties and its reinforcing effects. The purpose of the present studies was to examine whether there might also be gender-related differences in the development(More)