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As part of an effort to examine gender-related differences in the abuse liability of morphine, the present parametric study was undertaken to systematically establish whether there are gender-related differences in the antinociceptive activity of morphine in rats. Our results showed that male rats were uniformly more sensitive to the antinociceptive(More)
Earlier studies of cocaine's effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis used nonresponse-contingent designs in which the investigator determined dose, timing, and route of administration. It is important to evaluate whether "control" over cocaine delivery is a significant determinant of cocaine's HPA axis effect. This study measured cocaine's(More)
This study was designed to examine the effects of self-administered cocaine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in rhesus monkeys. Initially, basal release of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was measured in singly housed male and female monkeys (n = 9) over a 24-h period using plasma samples obtained from indwelling venous(More)
UNLABELLED OxyContin (Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, Conn) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 as a sustained-release preparation of oxycodone hydrochloride and was thought to have much lower abuse potential than immediate-release oxycodone because of its slow-release properties. However, beginning in 2000, widespread reports of(More)
In earlier studies, it was shown that male rats were considerably more sensitive to the antinociceptive properties of morphine than females in several antinociceptive assays. The purpose of our studies was to examine whether these male-female differences might be due to differences in the blood and brain levels of morphine attained after its s.c. injection(More)
The effects of acute and chronic alcohol administration on serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were examined in the male rat. Chronic alcohol administration resulted in depressed serum testosterone and LH levels when alcohol-fed rats were compared with rats maintained, ad libitum, on rat chow and water. However, neither testosterone nor(More)
The purpose of the present studies was to determine the role of either the organizational or activational sex steroids in mediating the sex differences observed in morphine-induced antinociception in the rat. To examine the organizational aspects, male pups were castrated at postnatal days 1 and 2; females were masculinized by large doses of testosterone on(More)
The high cost of life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for HIV represents an expense that impedes accessibility and affordability by patients. This price structure also appears to motivate the diversion of ARVs and the targeting of HIV-positive patients by pill brokers in the illicit market. Our field research with indigent, HIV-positive substance(More)
The hypothesis that an arginine-nitric oxide (NO) synthase-NO system mediates the morphine abstinence syndrome was tested in adult male rats implanted subcutaneously for 3 days with one morphine (75 mg) pellet followed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal (0.5 mg/kg). Injection with a NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME, 100 mg/kg(More)
Evidence has been reported supporting the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) partially mediates the expression of morphine dependence. To examine whether NO-related agents also affect the expression of alcohol dependence, adult male rats were treated chronically with alcohol. Upon withdrawal of alcohol administration, abstinence signs were observed after(More)