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UNLABELLED OxyContin (Purdue Pharma L.P., Stamford, Conn) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1995 as a sustained-release preparation of oxycodone hydrochloride and was thought to have much lower abuse potential than immediate-release oxycodone because of its slow-release properties. However, beginning in 2000, widespread reports of(More)
The effects of acute and chronic alcohol administration on serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were examined in the male rat. Chronic alcohol administration resulted in depressed serum testosterone and LH levels when alcohol-fed rats were compared with rats maintained, ad libitum, on rat chow and water. However, neither testosterone nor(More)
Earlier studies of cocaine's effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis used nonresponse-contingent designs in which the investigator determined dose, timing, and route of administration. It is important to evaluate whether "control" over cocaine delivery is a significant determinant of cocaine's HPA axis effect. This study measured cocaine's(More)
In earlier studies, it was shown that male rats were considerably more sensitive to the antinociceptive properties of morphine than females in several antinociceptive assays. The purpose of our studies was to examine whether these male-female differences might be due to differences in the blood and brain levels of morphine attained after its s.c. injection(More)
As part of an effort to examine gender-related differences in the abuse liability of morphine, the present parametric study was undertaken to systematically establish whether there are gender-related differences in the antinociceptive activity of morphine in rats. Our results showed that male rats were uniformly more sensitive to the antinociceptive(More)
IMPORTANCE Over the past several years, there have been a number of mainstream media reports that the abuse of heroin has migrated from low-income urban areas with large minority populations to more affluent suburban and rural areas with primarily white populations. OBJECTIVE To examine the veracity of these anecdotal reports and define the relationship(More)
Concern about abuse/dependence in chronic pain patients taking opioid analgesics may lead to undertreatment of pain, yet little is known about the prevalence of abuse/dependence in these patients and how it differs among analgesic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of tramadol abuse compared to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory(More)
The purpose of the present studies was to determine the role of either the organizational or activational sex steroids in mediating the sex differences observed in morphine-induced antinociception in the rat. To examine the organizational aspects, male pups were castrated at postnatal days 1 and 2; females were masculinized by large doses of testosterone on(More)
IMPORTANCE In an effort to reduce wide-scale abuse of the proprietary oxycodone hydrochloride formulation OxyContin, an abuse-deterrent formulation (ADF) was introduced in 2010. Although the reformulation produced an immediate drop in abuse rates, a definite ceiling effect appeared over time, beyond which no further decrease was seen. OBJECTIVE To examine(More)