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BACKGROUND Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays an important role in apoptotic cell death. The role of p38 MAPK in myocardial injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion, an extreme stress to the heart, is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Studies were performed with isolated, Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Ischemia alone caused a(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence from cultured endothelial cell studies suggests that phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the PI3-kinase-Akt pathway increases NO production. This study was designed to elucidate the signaling pathway involved in the antiapoptotic effect of insulin in vivo and to test the hypothesis that(More)
Objective: To study the effects of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) cocktail on cardiac myocyte apoptosis and cardiac functional recovery following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), and to further determine the role of insulin in the GIK-induced cardioprotective effect in vivo. Methods: Forty eight male rabbits were subjected to 40 min MI followed by R(More)
The present experiment determined the effects of glutathione and ascorbic acid, the two most important hydrophilic antioxidants, on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and evaluated their relative therapeutic values. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (120 min) and treated with ascorbic acid, glutathione monoethyl(More)
Several recent studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin (Trx) is an important antiapoptotic/cytoprotective molecule. The present study was designed to determine whether Trx activity is altered in the aging heart in a way that may contribute to increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). Compared to young animals, MI/R-induced(More)
Objectives: Our previous study has shown that slow or “controlled” reperfusion for the ischemic heart reduces cardiomyocyte injury and myocardial infarction, while the mechanisms involved are largely unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhancement of survival and prevention of apoptosis in hypoxic/reoxygenated cardiomyocytes by hypoxic(More)
Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation/activation has been implicated as a primary mechanism underlying MI/R injury. Recent studies have demonstrated that PMNs express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and produce toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS). However, the role of iNOS-derived reactive nitrogen species and resultant nitrative stress in(More)
One hundred twelve patients presenting with a Glascow Coma Scale (GCS) score greater than or equal to 13 with a history of minor head trauma were prospectively studied to determine if certain historic or physical examination variables would predict which of these patients were at increased risk for intracranial injury. Patients either underwent cranial(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes increases the morbidity/mortality of ischemic heart disease, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Deficiency of both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and adiponectin occurs in diabetes, but whether AMPK is cardioprotective or a central mediator of adiponectin cardioprotection in vivo remains unknown. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE Reduced plasma adiponectin (APN) in diabetic patients is associated with endothelial dysfunction. However, APN knockout animals manifest modest systemic dysfunction unless metabolically challenged. The protein family CTRPs (C1q/TNF-related proteins) has recently been identified as APN paralogs and some CTRP members share APN's metabolic regulatory(More)