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Single-process models of recognition memory posit that recognizing is based on a unidimensional value of global memory strength. By contrast, dual-process models propose the existence of two independent processes subserving the explicit recognition of previously encountered episodes, namely "familiarity" and "recollection." Familiarity represents a(More)
The authors introduce a screening instrument that assesses cognitive-function domains across adulthood over the telephone. The authors administered the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument (COGTEL) to 81 younger adults (M = 25.6 years) and 83 older adults (M = 66.9 years). Each participant completed the COGTEL twice, once over the telephone and once in(More)
The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate emotions across(More)
Studies of age differences in event-based prospective memory indicate wide variation in the magnitude of age effects. One explanation derived from the multiprocess framework proposes that age differences depend on whether the cue to carry out a prospective intention is focal to ongoing task processing. A meta-analysis of 117 effect sizes from 4,709(More)
Prospective memory (PM) reflects the product of cognitive processes associated with the formation, retention, delayed initiation, and execution of intentions. It has been proposed that developmental changes in PM across the lifespan are heavily dependent upon the developmental trajectory of executive control functions. This study is the first to apply a(More)
This study investigated the role of metacognition in event-based prospective memory. The aim of the study was to explore the relation between an item-level prediction (judgments of learning, JOL) and actual performance. The task and JOLs allowed a differentiation of the two components of prospective memory tasks (retrospective vs. prospective). Results(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Reports of ischemic stroke affecting the hippocampus are rare. In this study we used diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) to characterize patients with posterior circulation stroke involving the hippocampus. METHODS Fifty-seven consecutive acute stroke patients with hippocampal infarct (HI) on DWI were analyzed with regard to clinical(More)
This study follows the novel delayed-execute prospective memory paradigm, which involves briefly delaying the execution of an intended action, a task that has been shown to produce substantial age effects. During the ongoing task, sentences were presented, and participants had to answer reading-comprehension questions and general knowledge questions. In the(More)
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of severe amnesia without concomitant focal neurological symptoms. This meta-analysis of the cognitive characteristics of TGA addressed two main issues. First, we examined the hypothesis that the acute phase of TGA is associated with changes of anterograde and retrograde(More)
The authors investigated the phenomenon that performance in an ongoing task declines when individuals must carry out a prospective memory (PM) task. This effect is referred to as the PM interference effect. The authors examined whether the PM interference effect differs between event-based and time-based PM tasks and whether it is increased among the(More)