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The anatomical organization of the parahippocampal-hippocampal network indicates that it consists of different parallel circuits. Considering the topographical distribution of sensory cortical inputs, the hypothesis is that the major parallel circuits carry functionally different information. These functionally different parallel routes reach different(More)
The hippocampal memory system, consisting of the hippocampal formation and the adjacent parahippocampal region, is known to play an important role in learning and memory processes. In recent years, evidence from a variety of experimental approaches indicates that each of the constituting fields of the hippocampal memory system may serve functionally(More)
In this study, we analyzed in detail the topographic organization of the subiculoparahippocampal projection in the rat. The anterograde tracers Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin-L and biotinylated dextran amine were injected into the subiculum at different septotemporal and transverse levels. Deep layers of the ento-, peri-, and postrhinal cortices are the(More)
The entorhinal cortex has long been recognized as an important interface between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex. The notion of bidirectional connections between the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampal formation have led to the suggestion that hippocampal output originating in CA1 and subiculum may reenter hippocampal subfields via the(More)
Neurons providing connections between the deep and superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex (EC) constitute a pivotal link in the network underlying reverberation and gating of neuronal activity in the entorhinal-hippocampal system. To learn more of these deep-to-superficial neurons and their targets, we applied the tracer Neurobiotin pericellularly in(More)
The hippocampal formation communicates with the neocortex mainly through the adjacent entorhinal cortex. Neurons projecting to the hippocampal formation are found in the superficial layers of the entorhinal cortex and are largely segregated from the neurons receiving hippocampal output, which are located in deep entorhinal layers. We studied the(More)
Calretinin is a marker that differentially labels neurons in the central nervous system. We used this marker to distinguish subtypes of neurons within the general population of neurons in the entorhinal cortex of the rat. The distribution, morphology, and ultrastructure of calretinin-immunopositive neurons in this cortical area were documented. We further(More)
The entorhinal cortex (EC) and the hippocampus are reciprocally connected. Neurons in the superficial layers of EC project to the hippocampus, whereas deep entorhinal layers receive return connections. In the deep layers of EC, pyramidal neurons in layer V possess apical dendrites that ascend towards the cortical surface through layers IIII and II. These(More)
We characterized presubicular neurons giving rise to bilateral projections to the medial entorhinal cortex (MEA) of the rat. Retrograde labeling of presubiculo-entorhinal projections with horseradish peroxidase and subsequent GABA immunocytochemistry revealed that 20-30% of the ipsilaterally projecting neurons are GABAergic. No GABAergic projections to the(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian sperms are activated in the oviduct. This process, which involves extensive sperm surface remodelling, is required for fertilization and can be mimicked under in vitro fertilization conditions (IVF). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here we demonstrate that such treatments caused stable docking and priming of the acrosome membrane to(More)