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Mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 are responsible for recognizing viral single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and are activated by anti-viral imidazoquinoline compounds, leading to a series of defensive mechanisms being launched to protect the host against viruses. In this study, we identified two TLR7 (with one probably a pseudogene) and three TLR8 genes,(More)
Morbilliviruses cause many diseases of medical and veterinary importance, and although some (e.g., measles and rinderpest) have been controlled successfully, others, such as canine distemper virus (CDV), are a growing concern. A propensity for host-switching has resulted in CDV emergence in new species, including endangered wildlife, posing challenges for(More)
Recently, it has been reported that Salmonella secrete flagellin in response to host produced lysophospholipids. However, this monomer of the bacterial flagella activates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the innate immune system. The objective of this study was to examine the role of flagellin expression during infection of species-specific macrophages (MPhi)(More)
Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are widely used parasiticides against nematodes and arthropods, but resistance is frequently observed in parasitic nematodes of horses and livestock. Reports claiming resistance or decreased susceptibility in human nematodes are increasing. Since no target site directed ML resistance mechanisms have been identified, non-specific(More)
Teleost fish possess many types of toll-like receptor (TLR) some of which exist in other vertebrate groups and some that do not (ie so-called "fish-specific" TLRs). In this study, we identified in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs seven TLRs that are not found in mammals, including six types of fish-specific TLRs (one TLR18,(More)
Antimicrobial susceptibility test results for trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with Streptococcus equi subspecies are interpreted based on human data for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The veterinary-specific data generated in this study support a single breakpoint for testing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and/or trimethoprim-sulfadiazine with S. equi This study(More)
Compelling evidence suggests that the early interaction between porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) and the innate immune system is the key event in the pathogenesis of Post-Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS). Furthermore, PCV2 has been detected in bone-marrow samples, potentially enabling an easy spread and reservoir for the virus. To assess the(More)
BACKGROUND For first time in Greece equine influenza virus infection was confirmed, by isolation and molecular analysis, as the cause of clinical respiratory disease among unvaccinated horses during 2003 and 2007 outbreaks. METHODS Equine influenza virus (EIV) H3N8 was isolated in MDCK cells from 30 nasal swabs from horses with acute respiratory disease,(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are indispensable components of the innate immune system, which recognise conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce a series of defensive immune responses to protect the host. Biosynthesis, localisation and activation of TLRs are dependent on TLR accessory proteins. In this study, we identified the(More)
We show that oral inoculation of 14 day old conventional piglets with a rough attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis 1326/28Ф(r) (serogroup C1), 24h prior to oral challenge with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium 4/74 (serogroup B), resulted in significant weight gain (~10%) measured at 14 days post-weaning (38 days of age). Two days after challenge(More)
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