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The CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) model decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number of R factors and a residual array by minimizing the sum of squares of the latter. It is well known that an optimal solution for CP need not exist. We show that if an optimal CP solution does not exist, then any sequence of CP factors monotonically decreasing the CP(More)
This paper introduces a vital extension to partial least squares path mod-eling: consistency. While maintaining all strengths of PLS, the consistent version provides two key improvements. Path coefficients, parameters of simultaneous equations, construct correlations, and indicator loadings are estimated consistently. And the global goodness of fit of the(More)
This article addresses Rönkkö and Evermann’s criticisms of the partial least squares (PLS) approach to structural equation modeling. We contend that the alleged shortcomings of PLS are not due to problems with the technique, but instead to three problems with Rönkkö and Evermann’s study: (a) the adherence to the common factor model, (b) a very limited(More)
Together with the development of information systems research, there has also been increased interest in non-linear relationships between focal constructs. This article presents six Partial Least Squares-based approaches for estimating formative constructs' quadratic effects. In addition, these approaches' performance is tested by means of a complex Monte(More)
Partial Least Squares as applied to models with latent variables, measured indirectly by indicators, is well-known to be inconsistent. The linear compounds of indicators that PLS substitutes for the latent variables do not obey the equations that the latter satisfy. We propose simple, non-iterative corrections leading to consistent and asymptotically normal(More)
A guirre-Urreta and Marakas [ A3 Aguirre-Urreta M, Marakas G (2013) Research note—Partial least squares and models with formatively specified endogenous constructs: A cautionary note. to evaluate the performance of partial least squares (PLS) path modeling when estimating models with formative endogenous constructs, but their ability to reach valid(More)