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The CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) model decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number of R factors and a residual array by minimizing the sum of squares of the latter. It is well known that an optimal solution for CP need not exist. We show that if an optimal CP solution does not exist, then any sequence of CP factors monotonically decreasing the CP(More)
Together with the development of information systems research, there has also been increased interest in non-linear relationships between focal constructs. This article presents six Partial Least Squares-based approaches for estimating formative constructs' quadratic effects. In addition, these approaches' performance is tested by means of a complex Monte(More)
This paper introduces a vital extension to partial least squares path mod-eling: consistency. While maintaining all strengths of PLS, the consistent version provides two key improvements. Path coefficients, parameters of simultaneous equations, construct correlations, and indicator loadings are estimated consistently. And the global goodness of fit of the(More)
Partial Least Squares as applied to models with latent variables, measured indirectly by indicators, is well-known to be inconsistent. The linear compounds of indicators that PLS substitutes for the latent variables do not obey the equations that the latter satisfy. We propose simple, non-iterative corrections leading to consistent and asymptotically normal(More)
A guirre-Urreta and Marakas [ A3 Aguirre-Urreta M, Marakas G (2013) Research note—Partial least squares and models with formatively specified endogenous constructs: A cautionary note. to evaluate the performance of partial least squares (PLS) path modeling when estimating models with formative endogenous constructs, but their ability to reach valid(More)
In a report published in 2007 UNICEF measured six dimensions of child well-being for the majority of the economically advanced nations. No overall scores are given, but countries are listed in the order of their average rank on the dimensions, which are therefore implicitly assigned 'equal importance'. In this study we take 'equal importance' to mean that(More)
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