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Bacterial sepsis and septic shock result from the overproduction of inflammatory mediators as a consequence of the interaction of the immune system with bacteria and bacterial wall constituents in the body. Bacterial cell wall constituents such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycans, and lipoteichoic acid are particularly responsible for the deleterious(More)
Liver parenchymal cells play a dominant role in hepatic metabolism and thereby total body cholesterol homeostasis. To gain insight into the specific pathways and genes involved in the response of liver parenchymal cells to increased dietary lipid levels under atherogenic conditions, changes in parenchymal cell gene expression upon feeding a Western-type(More)
Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily, which operates in acute phase responses through a currently unknown receptor. Elevated GDF-15 serum levels were recently identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. We show that GDF-15 expression is up-regulated as disease progresses in(More)
Interleukins are considered to be key players in the chronic vascular inflammatory response that is typical of atherosclerosis. Thus, the expression of proinflammatory interleukins and their receptors has been demonstrated in atheromatous tissue, and the serum levels of several of these cytokines have been found to be positively correlated with (coronary)(More)
OBJECTIVE ABCG1 has recently been identified as a facilitator of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Its expression in macrophages is induced during cholesterol uptake in macrophages and by liver X receptor (LXR). The role of macrophage ABCG1 in atherosclerotic lesion development is, however, still unknown. (More)
Previous studies have shown that during the lifespan of red blood cells (RBCs) 20% of hemoglobin is lost by shedding of hemoglobin-containing vesicles. However, the fate of these vesicles is unknown. To study this fate we used a rat model, after having established that rat RBCs lose hemoglobin in the same way as human RBCs, and that RBC-derived vesicles are(More)
BACKGROUND ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key regulator of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid transport. Previously, we have shown that inactivation of macrophage ABCA1 induces atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr-/-) mice. However, the possibly beneficial effects of specific upregulation of macrophage(More)
Absence of shear stress due to disturbed blood flow at arterial bifurcations and curvatures leads to endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory gene expression, ultimately resulting in atherogenesis. KLF2 has recently been implicated as a transcription factor involved in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of flow. We investigated the effect of shear(More)
BACKGROUND Extrahepatic tissues have long been considered critical contributors of cholesterol to nascent HDL particles in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, in which ABCA1 plays the crucial role. Recent studies, however, including both overexpression and deletion of ABCA1 selectively in the liver, have highlighted the primary role of the liver in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the role of leukocyte CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in the early development of atherosclerosis METHODS AND RESULTS Bone marrow cells harvested from CCR2 (-/-) and CCR2 (+/+) mice were transplanted into ApoE3-Leiden mice, a mouse strain susceptible for diet-induced atherosclerosis. Eight weeks after bone marrow transplantation, the(More)