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All energy scenarios show a shift toward an increased percentage of renewable energy sources, including biomass. This study gives an overview of water footprints (WFs) of bioenergy from 12 crops that currently contribute the most to global agricultural production: barley, cassava, maize, potato, rapeseed, rice, rye, sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sugar cane,(More)
In response to our article on the blue and green water footprint (WF) of bioenergy (1), others propose to multiply each blue WF component by a water-stress index and neglect green WFs, because impacts would be nil (2). They propose to redefine the WF from a volumetric measure to an index resulting from multiplying volumes by impact factors. Framing their(More)
A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through a tapered cylindrical tube section (jet pump) placed in a larger outer tube. Due to the shape of the jet pump, an asymmetry in the hydrodynamic end effects will exist which will cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur that can be used to cancel Gedeon(More)
The water footprint (WF) of a product refers to freshwater consumed during production (1). We calculated bioenergy WFs assuming crop water requirements are met (2); Jong-schaap et al. (3) correctly point out that this is not always true, giving an example for jatropha grown under poor, rain-fed conditions in South Africa. Yields are generally expressed in(More)
The design of compact thermoacoustic devices requires compact jet pump geometries, which can be realized by employing jet pumps with multiple orifices. The oscillatory flow through the orifice(s) of a jet pump generates asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects, which result in a time-averaged pressure drop that can counteract Gedeon streaming in traveling wave(More)
The oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps) is characterized by a numerical parameter study. The shape of a jet pump results in asymmetric hydrodynamic end effects which cause a time-averaged pressure drop to occur under oscillatory flow conditions. Hence, jet pumps are used as streaming suppressors in closed-loop(More)
A computational fluid dynamics model is used to predict the oscillatory flow through tapered cylindrical tube sections (jet pumps). The asymmetric shape of jet pumps results in a time-averaged pressure drop that can be used to suppress Gedeon streaming in closed-loop thermoacoustic devices. However, previous work has shown that flow separation in the(More)
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