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Single-species acute toxicity data and (micro)mesocosm data were collated for 16 insecticides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test-species selection in constructing species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and the ability of estimated hazardous concentrations (HCs) to protect freshwater aquatic ecosystems. A log-normal model was(More)
The risk assessment of fungicides in Europe uses information from ecotoxicity studies performed on vertebrates, invertebrates, and primary producers, but not nontarget fungi. But which toxicity data should be used to assess risk and how important are modes of action and exposure regimes? A data set was compiled comprising acute single-species toxicity data(More)
A literature review of freshwater (model) ecosystem studies with neurotoxic insecticides was performed to assess ecological threshold levels, to compare these levels with the first tier approach within European Union (EU) administration procedures, and to evaluate the ecological consequences of exceeding these thresholds. Studies published between 1980 and(More)
The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus(More)
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin (treated at 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 ng active ingredient a.i./L) on a drainage ditch ecosystem in spring and late summer. Microcosms (water volume approximately 430 L) were established using enclosures in a 50-cm-deep experimental ditch system containing(More)
Secondary effects of a single dose of the insecticide Dursban 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) were studied in indoor experimental freshwater ecosystems intended to mimic drainage ditches. Two experiments were performed, one in which all model ecosystems were dominated by the macrophyte Elodea muttallii, and one using systems devoid of macrophytes. In(More)
This paper reports on the chronic effects of a mixture of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and lindane in freshwater microcosms. Chronic treatment levels corresponding to concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 times the LC50 of the most sensitive standard test organism were evaluated. The zooplankton community structure was altered from the 0.05 *(More)
We tested the effects of the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on growth of the submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum under laboratory conditions using different exposure scenarios. The exposures of each scenario were comparable in the concentration × time factor, viz., the same 21-d time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations but variable in peak exposure(More)
The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation.(More)
Effects of chronic concentrations of linuron (0, 0.5, 5, 15, 50, and 150 micrograms/L) were studied in indoor, macrophyte dominated, freshwater microcosms. The concentrations were kept at a constant level for 4 weeks. This paper is the first in a series of two and summarizes the course of the linuron concentrations in time and its effects on macrophytes,(More)