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BACKGROUND An effective vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops slowly, and induction of protection in humans can be achieved artificially by the inoculation of radiation-attenuated sporozoites by means of more than 1000 infective mosquito bites. METHODS We exposed 15 healthy volunteers--with 10 assigned to(More)
Volunteers immunized under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS) develop complete, long-lasting protection against homologous sporozoite challenge. Chloroquine affects neither sporozoites nor liver-stages, but kills only asexual forms in erythrocytes once released from the liver into the circulation. Consequently, CPS(More)
Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS), resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite development before killing of blood-stages by chloroquine(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that immunity to infection with Plasmodium falciparum can be induced experimentally in malaria-naive volunteers through immunisation by bites of infected mosquitoes while simultaneously preventing disease with chloroquine prophylaxis. This immunity was associated with parasite-specific production of interferon γ and interleukin 2 by(More)
Controlled human malaria infection with sporozoites is a standardized and powerful tool for evaluation of malaria vaccine and drug efficacy but so far only applied by exposure to bites of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-infected mosquitoes. We assessed in an open label Phase 1 trial, infection after intradermal injection of respectively 2,500, 10,000, or 25,000(More)
Effective control and eventual eradication of malaria drives the imperative need for clinical development of a malaria vaccine. Asexual parasite forms are responsible for clinical disease and death while apathogenic gametocytes are responsible for transmission from man to mosquito. Vaccines that combine antigens from both stages may provide direct(More)
The correct selection of individuals who will benefit from iron supplements in malaria-endemic regions requires improved insight in the effects of malaria on host iron homeostasis and innovative biomarkers. We assessed sequential changes in serum hepcidin and in traditional biochemical iron status indicators during an experimental Plasmodium falciparum(More)
Plasmodium falciparum and P. malariae occur endemically in many parts of Africa. Observations from malariotherapy patients suggest that co-infection with P. malariae may increase P. falciparum gametocyte production. We determined P. falciparum gametocyte prevalence and density by quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA) after(More)
Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted from person to person by Anopheles mosquitoes after completing its sexual reproductive cycle within the infected mosquito. An efficacious vaccine holds the potential to interrupt development of the parasite in the mosquito leading to control and possibly eradication of malaria. A multi-component, R0.10C, was developed(More)
Accurate sampling of sub-microscopic gametocytes is necessary for epidemiological studies to identify the infectious reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum. Detection of gametocyte mRNA achieves sensitive detection, but requires careful handling of samples. Filter papers can be used for collecting RNA samples, but rigorous testing of their capacity to withstand(More)