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Morphine and its congener opioids are the main therapy for severe pain in cancer. However, chronic morphine treatment stimulates angiogenesis and tumour growth in mice. We examined if celecoxib (a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor) prevents morphine-induced tumour growth without compromising analgesia. The effect of chronic treatment with celecoxib (by(More)
Tumour cells communicate with the cells of their microenvironment via a series of molecular and cellular interactions to aid their progression to a malignant state and ultimately their metastatic spread. Of the cells in the microenvironment with a key role in cancer development, tumour associated macrophages (TAMs) are among the most notable. Tumour cells(More)
Multiple cell types of the tumour microenvironment, including macrophages, contribute to the response to cancer therapy. The anti-resorptive agent zoledronic acid (ZOL) has anti–tumour effects in vitro and in vivo, but it is not known to what extent macrophages are affected by this agent. We have therefore investigated the effects of ZOL on macrophages(More)
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