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Human Dicer is an integral component of the RNA interference pathway. Dicer processes premicro-RNA and double-strand RNA to, respectively, mature micro-RNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA) and transfers the processed products to the RNA-induced silencing complex. To better understand the factors that are important for the binding, translocation, and(More)
A systematic study on the effect of 2'-sugar modifications (2'-F (2'-F-2'-deoxy-nucleoside residues), 2'-O-Me (2'-O-methyl-nucleoside residues), and 2'-O-MOE [2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl)]-nucleoside residues) in the antisense and sense strands of short interference RNA (siRNA) was performed in HeLa cells. The study of the antisense strand of siRNAs demonstrated(More)
A systematic structure-activity relationship study of 4'-thioribose containing small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has led to the identification of highly potent and stable antisense constructs. To enable this optimization effort for both in vitro and in vivo applications, we have significantly improved the yields of 4'-thioribonucleosides by using a chirally(More)
Mutant huntingtin (HTT) protein causes Huntington disease (HD), an incurable neurological disorder. Silencing mutant HTT using nucleic acids would eliminate the root cause of HD. Developing nucleic acid drugs is challenging, and an ideal clinical approach to gene silencing would combine the simplicity of single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides with the(More)
The therapeutic utility of siRNAs is limited by the requirement for complex formulations to deliver them to tissues. If potent single-stranded RNAs could be identified, they would provide a simpler path to pharmacological agents. Here, we describe single-stranded siRNAs (ss-siRNAs) that silence gene expression in animals absent lipid formulation. Effective(More)
The observation of light metal ions in nucleic acids crystals is generally a fortuitous event. Sodium ions in particular are notoriously difficult to detect because their X-ray scattering contributions are virtually identical to those of water and Na(+.)O distances are only slightly shorter than strong hydrogen bonds between well-ordered water molecules. We(More)
We have identified a small interfering RNA (siRNA) motif, consisting entirely of 2'-O-methyl and 2'-fluoro nucleotides, that displays enhanced plasma stability and increased in vitro potency. At one site, this motif showed remarkable >500-fold improvement in potency over the unmodified siRNA. This marks the first report of such a potent fully modified(More)
The syntheses of 10 new RNA 2'-O-modifications, their incorporation into oligonucleotides, and an evaluation of their properties such as RNA affinity and nuclease resistance relevant to antisense activity are presented. All modifications combined with the natural phosphate backbone lead to significant gains in terms of the stability of hybridization to RNA(More)
Chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides are currently progressing in multiple clinical trials. Among several chemical modifications made, modification of the 2'-position has proved most successful. Second generation antisense oligonucleotides incorporating these 2'-modifications exhibit high binding affinity to target RNA, enhanced metabolic(More)
We evaluated the abilities of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), a small interfering RNA (siRNA), and a single-stranded siRNA (ss-siRNA) to inhibit expression from the PTEN gene in mice when formulated identically with lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Significantly greater reductions in levels of PTEN mRNA were observed for LNP-formulated agents compared to(More)