Tharappel C. James

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of highly conserved molecules that initiate the innate immune response to pathogens by recognizing structural motifs expressed by microbes. We have identified a novel TLR, TLR15, by bioinformatic analysis of the chicken genome, which is distinct from any known vertebrate TLR and thus appears to be avian specific. The(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of innate immunity in a range of species from Drosophila to humans and are generally thought to act by disrupting the membrane integrity of microbes. In order to discover novel AMPs in the chicken, we have implemented a bioinformatic approach that involves the clustering of more than 420,000 chicken(More)
Modifiers of position-effect-variegation in Drosophila encode proteins that are thought to modify chromatin, rendering it heritably changed in its expressibility. In an attempt to identify similar modifier genes in other species we have utilized a known sequence homology, termed chromo box, between a suppressor of position-effect-variegation,(More)
Lager yeasts, Saccharomyces pastorianus, are interspecies hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus and are classified into Group I and Group II clades. The genome of the Group II strain, Weihenstephan 34/70, contains eight so-called 'lager-specific' genes that are located in subtelomeric regions. We evaluated the origins of these genes through(More)
The mealybug chromosome cycle is one of the most dramatic examples of genomic imprinting known. In embryos that are to become male the entire paternal chromosome set becomes heterochromatic and inactive at the blastoderm stage, while the maternal set remains active and euchromatic. HP1 is a protein from Drosophila melanogaster, which binds preferentially to(More)
Antimicrobial peptides are essential components of innate immunity and are generally thought to act by disrupting the membrane integrity of microbes. Here we report the discovery of two novel chicken β-defensins, gallinacin (Gal)-11 and Gal-12, found by hidden Markov model profile searching of the chicken genome. We have sequenced the genes and elucidated(More)
AIMS Yeast strains, used in the brewing industry, experience distinctive physiological conditions. During a brewing fermentation, yeast are exposed to anaerobic conditions, high pressure, high specific gravity and low temperatures. The purpose of this study was to examine the global gene expression profile of yeast subjected to brewing stress. METHODS AND(More)
We have sequenced a number of cDNAs representing the Bombyx mori silk fibroin heavy chain transcript. These reveal that the central region of the fibroin gene is composed of alternate arrays of the crystalline element a and the noncrystalline element b. The core region is partitioned by a homogeneous nonrepetitive amorphous domain of around 100 by in(More)
Competitive comparative genome hybridisation (CCGH) to Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA microarrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays are used to examine the copy number of S. cerevisiae-like genes, at single gene resolution, of two bottom-fermenting lager yeast strains, CMBS-33 and 6701. Using the S. cerevisiae gene order(More)
AIMS To compare the production of recombinant cellulase enzymes in two Saccharomyces species so as to ascertain the most suitable heterologous host for the degradation of cellulose-based biomass and its conversion into bioethanol. METHOD AND RESULTS cDNA copies of genes representing the three major classes of cellulases (Endoglucanases, Cellobiohydrolases(More)