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Visual inspection-based screening tests, such as visual inspection with 4% acetic acid (VIA) and with Lugol's iodine (VILI), have been proposed as alternatives to cytology in mass screening programs. To date, there is only limited information on the accuracy of these tests in detecting High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL). Eleven(More)
BACKGROUND Organized cervical cytology screening programs are not feasible in many developing countries where cervical carcinoma is an important cause of mortality among adult women. This study compared visual inspection of the cervix after application of 3-4% acetic acid (VIA, or cervicoscopy) with cytology as methods for the detection of cervical(More)
Although tobacco habits have been associated with the risk of oral leukoplakia, alcohol drinking and body mass index (BMI) as risk factors have not been well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the independent effects of drinking, BMI, tobacco chewing and smoking on the risk of oral leukoplakia. A case-control study was conducted, with(More)
OBJECTIVE While chewing areca nut is considered a risk factor for oral submucous fibrosis, the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and body mass index (BMI) have not been examined; nor are they well established. In this study we investigated the association between BMI, smoking, drinking, and the risk of oral submucous fibrosis. METHODS We(More)
Cervical cancer is the main cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa, India and other parts of the developing world. Evaluation of screening performance of effective, feasible and affordable early detection and management methods is a public health priority. Five screening methods, naked eye visual inspection of the cervix uteri after application of diluted(More)
BACKGROUND Oral cancer satisfies the criteria for a suitable disease for screening, and oral visual inspection is a suitable test for oral cancer screening. The efficacy of screening in reducing mortality from oral cancer has not yet been evaluated. The authors describe a cluster-randomized, controlled oral cancer screening trial in southern India and its(More)
The knowledge that cervical neoplasia are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has led to the evaluation of its role in screening. We evaluated the accuracy of HPV testing by Hybrid capture II (HC II) method in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3 (CIN 2 and 3) lesions in 4 cross-sectional studies with common protocol and(More)
The blue-green microalgae Spirulina, used in daily diets of natives in Africa and America, have been found to be a rich natural source of proteins, carotenoids, and other micronutrients. Experimental studies in animal models have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Spirulina algae on oral carcinogenesis. Studies among preschool children in India have(More)
Recent studies have suggested role of diabetes mellitus in the development of periodontal diseases, oral inflammatory and neoplastic lesions. We analysed data from randomised oral cancer screening trial in Kerala, India, to study the association between chronic diseases in general, diabetes mellitus in particular, and pre-malignant oral lesions and(More)
A cluster randomized controlled oral cancer screening trial is on-going in the Trivandrum district, India, to evaluate the efficacy of screening in reducing oral cancer mortality. Subjects, aged 35 years and above, in 13 clusters in the Trivandrum district, India, were randomized to the intervention (screening) group (7 clusters, 78969 subjects) to receive(More)