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Visual inspection-based screening tests, such as visual inspection with 4% acetic acid (VIA) and with Lugol's iodine (VILI), have been proposed as alternatives to cytology in mass screening programs. To date, there is only limited information on the accuracy of these tests in detecting High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL). Eleven(More)
OBJECTIVE While chewing areca nut is considered a risk factor for oral submucous fibrosis, the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and body mass index (BMI) have not been examined; nor are they well established. In this study we investigated the association between BMI, smoking, drinking, and the risk of oral submucous fibrosis. METHODS We(More)
Although tobacco habits have been associated with the risk of oral leukoplakia, alcohol drinking and body mass index (BMI) as risk factors have not been well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the independent effects of drinking, BMI, tobacco chewing and smoking on the risk of oral leukoplakia. A case-control study was conducted, with(More)
BACKGROUND Organized cervical cytology screening programs are not feasible in many developing countries where cervical carcinoma is an important cause of mortality among adult women. This study compared visual inspection of the cervix after application of 3-4% acetic acid (VIA, or cervicoscopy) with cytology as methods for the detection of cervical(More)
BACKGROUND Oral cancer satisfies the criteria for a suitable disease for screening, and oral visual inspection is a suitable test for oral cancer screening. The efficacy of screening in reducing mortality from oral cancer has not yet been evaluated. The authors describe a cluster-randomized, controlled oral cancer screening trial in southern India and its(More)
Cervical cancer is the main cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa, India and other parts of the developing world. Evaluation of screening performance of effective, feasible and affordable early detection and management methods is a public health priority. Five screening methods, naked eye visual inspection of the cervix uteri after application of diluted(More)
The knowledge that cervical neoplasia are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has led to the evaluation of its role in screening. We evaluated the accuracy of HPV testing by Hybrid capture II (HC II) method in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3 (CIN 2 and 3) lesions in 4 cross-sectional studies with common protocol and(More)
A cluster randomized controlled oral cancer screening trial is on-going in the Trivandrum district, India, to evaluate the efficacy of screening in reducing oral cancer mortality. Subjects, aged 35 years and above, in 13 clusters in the Trivandrum district, India, were randomized to the intervention (screening) group (7 clusters, 78969 subjects) to receive(More)
Chondroradionecrosis of larynx is a well recognized complication of radiation therapy, which usually occur with in the 1st year. Review of literature shows very few accounts of late radiation induced clinical chondroradionecrosis of the larynx. This condition can mimic a local recurrence and severe and life threatening involvement will require aggressive(More)
The blue-green microalgae Spirulina, used in daily diets of natives in Africa and America, have been found to be a rich natural source of proteins, carotenoids, and other micronutrients. Experimental studies in animal models have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of Spirulina algae on oral carcinogenesis. Studies among preschool children in India have(More)