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The effect of microsomal protein concentration on the inhibitory potency of a series of CYP3A inhibitors was assessed in vitro using diazepam 3-hydroxylation (yielding temazepam) as an index of CYP3A activity. With diazepam concentrations fixed at 100 micro M, inhibition of temazepam formation by fixed concentrations of ritonavir, ketoconazole,(More)
Antithrombin III Basel is a hereditary abnormal antithrombin with normal progressive inhibition activity (normal reactive site) and reduced heparin cofactor activity (impaired heparin binding site). Structures of antithrombin III Basel and normal antithrombin III isolated from the same patient were compared by peptide mapping using the(More)
Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK) can delay oxidant-induced cell death, but the mechanism is unknown. We found that oxidant stress of cardiac myocytes activated both JNK and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and that expression of JNK inhibitory mutants accelerated multiple steps in this pathway, including the cleavage and activation of(More)
Dysfunctional neural control of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is involved in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma. However, neurogenesis in the lung is poorly understood. This study uses mouse models to investigate developmental mechanisms of ASM innervation, a process that is highly coordinated with ASM formation during lung branching morphogenesis. We show(More)
The involvement of brain monoamines in learning and memory in developing rats was studied by comparing the effects of 3 different noradrenergic neurotoxin treatments. Two experimental groups of male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were injected systemically with 50 micrograms/g of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) either on the day of birth or on(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a heparan sulfate (HS)-binding factor. GDNF is produced by somatic Sertoli cells, where it signals to maintain spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and reproduction. Here, we investigate the roles of extracellular HS 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs), Sulf1 and Sulf2, in the matrix transmission of GDNF from Sertoli(More)
Skeletal muscle regeneration is mediated by satellite cells (SCs). Upon injury, SCs undergo self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation into myoblasts followed by myoblast fusion to form new myofibers. We previously showed that the heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulf1 and -2) repress FGF signaling to induce SC differentiation during muscle(More)
The removal of damaged, superfluous or energy-starved cells is essential for biological homeostasis, and occurs in every tissue type. Programmed cell death occurs through several closely regulated signal pathways, including apoptosis, in which cell components are broken down and packaged into small membrane-bound fragments that are then removed by(More)
The analgesic and addictive properties of morphine and other opioid drugs are thought to result from their interaction with mu opioid receptors. Using a delta opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated a murine mu opioid receptor cDNA clone (mMOR). Stable expression of mMOR in Chinese hamster ovary cells conferred high binding affinity for mu(More)
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