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Modulation of NF-κB-dependent responses is critical to the success of attaching/effacing (A/E) human pathogenic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC) and the natural mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. NleB, a highly conserved type III secretion system effector of A/E pathogens, suppresses NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We identified the(More)
Survival of M. tuberculosis in host macrophages requires the eukaryotic-type protein kinase G, PknG, but the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here, we show that PknG is an integral component of a novel redox homeostatic system, RHOCS, which includes the ribosomal protein L13 and RenU, a Nudix hydrolase encoded by a gene adjacent to pknG. Studies(More)
The human pathogens enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EHEC and EPEC), as well as the related mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject multiple effector proteins into host cells. The E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 carries two copies of non-locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded(More)
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and other attaching/effacing bacterial pathogens cause diarrhea in humans. These pathogens use a type III secretion system to inject virulence proteins (effectors) into host cells, some of which inhibit the innate immune system. The enterohemorrhagic E. coli NleH1 effector prevents the nuclear translocation of RPS3(More)
DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor (DAI) acts as a cytosolic B-form DNA sensor that induces type I interferons. However, DAI is not required for DNA sensing in certain cell types due to redundancy of the DNA sensing system. Here, we investigated the effect of DAI on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection in HepG2 hepatocellular(More)
The methylfolate trap, a metabolic blockage associated with anemia, neural tube defects, Alzheimer's dementia, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, was discovered in the 1960s, linking the metabolism of folate, vitamin B12, methionine and homocysteine. However, the existence or physiological significance of this phenomenon has been unknown in bacteria,(More)
Interferon signaling plays important roles in both intestinal homeostasis and in the host response to pathogen infection. The extent to which bacterial pathogens inhibit this host pathway is an understudied area of investigation. We characterized Citrobacter rodentium strains bearing deletions in individual type III secretion system effector genes to(More)
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