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Aliphatic alcohols (1-alkanols) selectively inhibit the neuronal Shaw2 K(+) channel at an internal binding site. This inhibition is conferred by a sequence of 13 residues that constitutes the S4-S5 loop in the pore-forming subunit. Here, we combined functional and structural approaches to gain insights into the molecular basis of this interaction. To infer(More)
The selective inhibition of neuronal Shaw2 K+ channels by 1-alkanols is conferred by the internal S4-S5 loop, a region that also contributes to the gating of voltage-gated K+ channels. Here, we applied alanine scanning mutagenesis to examine the contribution of the S5 and S6 segments to the allosteric modulation of Shaw2 K+ channels by 1-alkanols. The(More)
The structural bases of general anesthetic action on a neuronal K(+) channel were investigated using the series of homologous 1-alkanols, electrophysiology, and mutational analysis. Domain swapping between dShaw2 (alkanol-sensitive) and hKv3.4 (alkanol-resistant) and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that a 13-amino acid cytoplasmic loop (S4-S5)(More)
Gating of voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v) channels) depends on the electromechanical coupling between the voltage sensor and activation gate. The main activation gate of K(v) channels involves the COOH-terminal section of the S6 segment (S6-b) and the S4-S5 linker at the intracellular mouth of the pore. In this study, we have expanded our earlier work to(More)
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is a potent and specific inhibitor of mammalian inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenases (IMPDH); most microbial IMPDHs are not sensitive to MPA. MPA-resistant mutants of human IMPDH type II were isolated in order to identify the structural features that determine the species selectivity of MPA. Three mutant IMPDHs were identified with(More)
Shal (Kv4) alpha-subunits are the most conserved among the family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Previous work has shown that the Shal potassium channel subfamily underlies the predominant fast transient outward current in Drosophila neurons (Tsunoda, S., and Salkoff, L. (1995) J. Neurosci. 15, 1741-1754) and the fast transient outward current in(More)
We have explored the structure and subunit composition of the vacuolar ATPase of Neurospora crassa by investigating the effects of nitrate. Inhibition of enzyme activity by nitrate was correlated with dissociation of a complex of peripheral polypeptides from the integral membrane part of the enzyme. Surprisingly, this nitrate-induced release of subunits(More)
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