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1. In postganglionic sympathetic neurones and adrenal chromaffin cells, catecholamines are co-stored in vesicles with soluble peptides, including chromogranin A (CgA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which are subject to exocytotic co-release with catecholamines. 2. Plasma catecholamine, CgA and NPY responses to stimulators and inhibitors of sympatho-adrenal(More)
A lowered threshold to the cough response frequently accompanies chronic airway inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanism(s) that from chronic inflammation results in a lowered cough threshold is poorly understood. Irritant agents, including capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and citric acid, elicit cough in humans and in experimental animals through the(More)
Chromogranin A expression is heritable in humans, and both plasma chromogranin A concentration and its releasable adrenal and sympathetic neuronal pools are augmented in established essential (hereditary) hypertension. To evaluate chromogranin A further as a simpler or "intermediate phenotype" in the complex trait of hypertension, we studied chromogranin A(More)
When five substituents of hapalosin were placed on D-glucose, molecular modeling revealed that the substituents on mimetics 2 and 3 occupy similar spatial positions as the corresponding substituents on hapalosin. Mimetic 3 and all the glucopyranoside intermediates generated in its synthesis were assessed for their ability to reverse multidrug resistance(More)
Chromogranins A and B are major soluble proteins in chromaffin granules. Their adrenomedullary content is increased in the spontaneously (genetic) hypertensive rat. Is augmented catecholamine vesicular storage of the chromogranins a specific feature of genetic hypertension? To explore this question, we measured chromogranin A immunoreactivity, using a(More)
Chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II are a family of acidic proteins found in neuroendocrine secretory vesicles; these proteins contain multiple potential cleavage sites for proteolytic processing by the mammalian subtilisin-like serine endoproteases PC1 and PC2 (prohormone convertases 1 and 2), and furin. We explored the role of these endoproteases(More)
Chromogranin A (CgA) is an acidic soluble protein exocytotically released from virtually all neuroendocrine secretory vesicles. Here we examined spontaneous variations in CgA and catecholamine concentrations in humans. In normal subjects, basal CgA showed no day-to-day, week-to-week, or diurnal variability. Plasma CgA had significant ultradian variation in(More)
The chromogranins/secretogranins are a family of neuroendocrine vesicle secretory proteins. Immunohistology and immunoblotting have suggested that a major soluble protein in human chromaffin granules may be chromogranin B (CgB). We purified from pheochromocytoma chromaffin granules an SDS-PAGE 110-120 kDa protein whose N-terminal sequence matched that(More)
Although the structure of chromogranin A (CgA) is now known, its ultimate physiological role remains elusive. Recently, an interior fragment of CgA [CgA(124-143)], also called chromostatin, was reported to suppress catecholamine release from chromaffin cells in vitro. We therefore explored chromostatin's biological actions when administered in vivo to(More)
Ethanol is a chemical irritant able to induce a large variety of effects in the airways. It has been reported that ethanol sensitizes the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) to various stimuli and inhalation of ethanol enhances the cough mediated by TRPV1 activation (capsaicin) in patients suffering of airway sensory hyperreactivity. Here, we(More)