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The transtheoretical model (TTM) posits that processes of change and the pros and cons of smoking predict progressive movement through the stages of change. This study provides both a cross-sectional replication and a prospective test of this hypothesis. As part of a larger study of worksite cancer prevention (the Working Well Trial), employees of 26(More)
Relapse prevention remains a major challenge to smoking cessation efforts. T. H. Brandon, B. N. Collins, L. M. Juliano, and A. B. Lazev (2000) found that a series of 8 empirically based relapse-prevention booklets mailed to ex-smokers over 1 year significantly reduced relapse. This study dismantled 2 components of that intervention: the amount of content(More)
R. Eisenberger's (1992) learned industriousness theory states that individuals display differing degrees of persistence depending on their history of reinforcement for effortful behavior. These differences may influence the development, maintenance, and cessation of addictive behaviors. In cross-sectional studies, E. P. Quinn, T. H. Brandon, and A. L.(More)
Smoking-related cues tend to produce urges and cardiac responses in smokers. This reactivity has been assumed to reflect prior classical conditioning. However, little direct evidence exists supporting the notion that environmental cues can be classically conditioned to cigarette smoking. In this study, 8 smokers received 22 daily trials during which 2 cue(More)
Longitudinal study designs in addictive behaviors research are common as researchers have focused increasingly on how various explanatory variables affect responses over time. In particular, such designs are used in intervention studies that have multiple follow-up points. These designs typically involve repeated measurement of participants' responses, and(More)
  • T A Herzog
  • 1999
The theory of "alcohol myopia" (C. M. Steele & R. A. Josephs, 1990) suggests that an intoxicated person is disproportionately influenced by immediate, superficial aspects of experience and that effortful, controlled cognitive processing is impaired. The present research examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on social inferences, which refer to(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the validity of the stages of change (SOC) algorithm for current smokers. DESIGN This study was a mail-based, cross-sectional survey study of 242 adult smokers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The main outcome measures were the SOC algorithm and a variety of alternative questionnaire items measuring motivation to quit smoking. RESULTS AND(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several previous studies have reported the benefits of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) contralateral to carotid occlusion with mixed results, but none of these were randomized except for the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of surgery in patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the transtheoretical model applied to smoking cessation using the framework of N. D. Weinstein, A. J. Rothman, and S. R. Sutton (1998), which is the general framework for designing and evaluating stage models of health behavior. DESIGN Systematic review. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The transtheoretical model applied to smoking cessation(More)
According to the transtheoretical model (J. O. Prochaska & C. C. DiClemente, 1983), current smokers can be usefully divided into three distinct stages. Questionnaire items needed for staging smokers contain questions about intentions to quit within fixed time frames (30 days and 6 months) and require "Yes" or "No" responses. However, some smokers might not(More)