Thad A Harroun

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Transmembrane pores induced by amphiphilic peptides, including melittin, are often modeled with the barrel-stave model after the alamethicin pore. We examine this assumption on melittin by using two methods, oriented circular dichroism (OCD) for detecting the orientation of melittin helix and neutron scattering for detecting transmembrane pores. OCD spectra(More)
Magainin, found in the skin of Xenopus laevis, belongs to a broad class of antimicrobial peptides which kill bacteria by permeabilizing the cytoplasmic membrane but do not lyse eukaryotic cells. The 23-residue peptide has been shown to form an amphiphilic helix when associated with membranes. However, its molecular mechanism of action has been(More)
We present a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions exhibited by gramicidin embedded in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) bilayers (Harroun et al., 1999. Biophys. J. 76:937-945). Incorporating gramicidin, at 1:10 peptide/lipid molar ratio,(More)
Hydrophobic matching, in which transmembrane proteins cause the surrounding lipid bilayer to adjust its hydrocarbon thickness to match the length of the hydrophobic surface of the protein, is a commonly accepted idea in membrane biophysics. To test this idea, gramicidin (gD) was embedded in 1, 2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1,(More)
Lipid bilayers containing the antimicrobial peptide protegrin-1 (PG-1) were studied by lamellar X-ray diffraction. Previously, we have shown that the peptide exists in two distinct states when associated with lipid bilayers depending on the peptide concentration [Heller, W. T., Waring, A. J., Lehrer, R. I., and Huang, H. W. (1998) Biochemistry 37,(More)
Adsorption of amphiphilic peptides to the headgroup region of a lipid bilayer is a common mode of protein-membrane interactions. Previous studies have shown that adsorption causes membrane thinning. The degree of the thinning depends on the degree of the lateral expansion caused by the peptide adsorption. If this simple molecular mechanism is correct, the(More)
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) has long been recognized as the major antioxidant in biological membranes, and yet many structurally related questions persist of how the vitamin functions. For example, the very low levels of alpha-tocopherol reported for whole cell extracts question how this molecule can successfully protect the comparatively enormous(More)
In this Letter we present small-angle neutron scattering data from a biomimetic system composed of the phospholipids dimyristoyl and dihexanoyl phosphorylcholine (DMPC and DHPC, respectively). Doping DMPC-DHPC multilamellar vesicles with either the negatively charged lipid dimyristoyl phosphorylglycerol (DMPG, net charge -1) or the divalent cation, calcium(More)
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are performed on pure dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles (ULV) and those containing either 20 or 47 mol% cholesterol, ergosterol or lanosterol. From the SANS data, we were able to determine the influence of these sterols on ULV bilayer thickness and vesicle area expansion(More)
Using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering, we have constructed partial structural phase diagrams of lipid mixtures composed of the phosphatidylcholines dimyristoyl and dihexanoyl doped with calcium ions (Ca2+) and/or the negatively charged lipid, dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG). For dilute solutions (lipid concentration < or(More)