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“Sniffin’ Sticks” is a test of nasal chemosensory function that is based on pen-like odor dispensing devices, introduced some 10 years ago by Kobal and co-workers. It consists of tests for odor threshold, discrimination, and identification. Previous work established its test-retest reliability and validity. Results of the test are presented as “TDI score”,(More)
“Sniffin’ Sticks” is a test of nasal chemosensory performance that is based on penlike odor-dispensing devices. It is comprised of three tests of olfactory function: tests for odor threshold, discrimination and identification. Previous work has already established its test-retest reliability and validity in comparison to established measures of olfactory(More)
The aim of the present study was to establish the crucial precondition for directional smelling, i.e. the ability of humans to discriminate between odorous stimuli perceived either from the right or from the left side. When the ‘pure’ odorants hydrogen sulphide or vanillin were used as stimulants localization was random. On the other hand stimulation with(More)
Decrease of olfactory function in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a well-investigated fact. The present study aimed to investigate olfaction in PD patients with a specific focus on the effects of deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus. Eleven patients (age 42–67 years) participated in this study. Using the “Sniffin’ Sticks”, olfactory(More)
The aim of the study was to find correlations between changes in olfactory sensitivity and the menstrual cycle. 14 young, healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Subjects menstruated regularly and did not use oral contraceptives. Three odorants were investigated: phenylethyl alcohol, androstenone, and nicotine. Dilution series of the odorants(More)
In contrast to many lower vertebrates, the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) in humans has long been regarded as absent or functionally irrelevant. For example, the neural connection between the VNE and the accessory olfactory bulb has been reported to degenerate during the second half of pregnancy and its presence has not been demonstrated in adults. Further,(More)
Olfactory loss is a prominent symptom in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Experiment 1 re-investigated the diagnostic value of psychophysical testing in the differentiation between idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) from non-IPD; 50 consecutive PS patients participated. In Experiment 2 five de-novo patients received 3 olfactory tests spread over a(More)
Olfactory loss is considered as idiopathic (IOL) when no cause can be found, neither on the basis of a standardized history nor a thorough clinical evaluation. Olfactory bulb volume (OB) has been shown to be decreased in patients with olfactory loss due to trauma, infections, or sinonasal disease. However, OB volume has not yet been investigated in IOL(More)
Olfactory loss is among early signs of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). The present pilot study aimed to investigate whether this loss would be reflected in a decreased volume of the olfactory bulb (OB) established through magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven consecutive IPD patients were compared to 9 healthy, age-matched controls. Results indicated(More)
To elaborate normative values for a clinical psychophysical taste test (“Taste Strips”). The “Taste Strips” are a psychophysical chemical taste test. So far, no definitive normative data had been published and only a fairly small sample size has been investigated. In light of this shortcoming for this easy, reliable and quick taste testing device, we(More)