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The major cell wall polysaccharide of mycobacteria is a branched-chain arabinogalactan in which arabinan chains are attached to the 5 carbon of some of the 6-linked galactofuranose residues; these arabinan chains are composed exclusively of D-arabinofuranose (Araf) residues. The immediate precursor of the polymerized Araf is decaprenylphosphoryl-D-Araf,(More)
Helicobacter pylori infection induces apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells. Here, we report a novel apoptosis-inducing protein that functions as a leading factor in H. pylori-mediated apoptosis induction. We purified the protein from H. pylori by separating fractions that showed apoptosis-inducing activity. This protein induced apoptosis of AGS cells in a(More)
A silicon retina that emulates the sustained and the transient responses in the vertebrate retina was fabricated. The circuit of the chip consists of two layers of resistive network that have different length constants. The output emulating the sustained response possesses a Laplacian-Gaussian-like receptive field and, therefore, carries out a smoothing and(More)
We designed a VLSI binocular vision system that emulates the disparity computation in the primary visual cortex (V1). The system consists of two silicon retinas, orientation chips, and field programmable gate array (FPGA), mimicking a hierarchical architecture of visual information processing in the disparity energy model. The silicon retinas emulate a(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether wire microelectrodes implanted in the optic disc can be used to elicit cortical potentials. METHODS Two or four platinum wire electrodes of two types, viz., the cut-end type and the exposed-tip type, were inserted through the vitreous and fixed in the optic disc of 16 rabbit eyes. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) were(More)
We describe the reliable vergence eye movement control of a binocular robot vision system based on a disparity computation in the primary visual cortex (V1). The system consists of two silicon retinas, simple cell chips, and an FPGA. The silicon retinas emulate a Laplacian-Gaussian (&#x25BD;<sup>2</sup>G)-like receptive field of the vertebrate retina. The(More)
BACKGROUND Bacteria develop resistance to aminoglycosides by producing aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes such as acetyltransferase, phosphorylase, and adenyltransferase. These enzymes, however, cannot confer consistent resistance to various aminoglycosides because of their substrate specificity. Notwithstanding, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain AR-2 showing(More)
Serratia marcescens S-95, which displayed an unusually high degree of resistance to aminoglycosides, including kanamycins and gentamicins, was isolated in 2002 from a patient in Japan. The resistance was mediated by a large plasmid which was nonconjugative but transferable to an Escherichia coli recipient by transformation. The gene responsible for the(More)
PURPOSE To determine the safety and efficacy of transsclerally placed intrapapillary wire microelectrodes implanted chronically into the optic nerve head of rabbit eyes. METHODS Four platinum wire microelectrodes were passed through the sclera and implanted into the optic nerve head of five rabbit eyes for 4-6 months. Color fundus photography, fluorescein(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium, is a major cause of invasive infection-related diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis. In blood, erythrocytes are considered to be an important factor for bacterial growth, as they contain abundant nutrients. However, the relationship between S. pneumoniae and erythrocytes remains unclear. We analyzed(More)