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PURPOSE The endothelins (ETs) cause reactive astrogliosis, which involves neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether blocking the ET signals will protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from optic nerve injury. METHODS We studied the effect of pretreatment with BQ-123, an(More)
Modulation of enzyme activity through nitrosylation has recently been identified as a new physiological activity of nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that NO enhances the TNF-α-induced death of retinal neurons through a suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by nitrosylation. In this study, cells from the RGC-5 line were exposed to different(More)
Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) allows for quantitative estimation of blood flow in the optic nerve head (ONH), choroid and retina, utilizing the laser speckle phenomenon. The basic technology and clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI, the updated model of LSFG, are summarized in this review. For developing a commercial version of LSFG, the special area sensor(More)
Spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats are an inbred strain of rats with a non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus that were isolated from an outbred colony of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from SDT and SD (controls) rats at 10- and 44-weeks-of-age to determine their retinal function. The amplitudes and implicit times of the(More)
Here, we examined whether amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein participates in cell death and retinal function using three types of transgenic (Tg) mice in vivo [human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg (Tg 2576) mice, mutant presenilin-1 (PS-1) knock-in mice, and APP/PS-1 double Tg mice]. ELISA revealed that the insoluble form of Abeta(1-40) was markedly(More)
The purpose if this study was to elucidate how extracellular ATP causes cell death in the retinal microvasculature. Although ATP appears to serve as a vasoactive signal acting via P2X(7) and P2Y(4) purinoceptors, this nucleotide can kill microvascular cells of the retina. Because P2X(7) receptor activation causes transmembrane pores to form and(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether retinal neurons become more susceptible to injury by nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic conditions. METHODS Cells from the RGC-5 line were exposed to different concentrations (0.1-100 microM) of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, under normoxic and hypoxic (1.0% O(2)) conditions with 5.5 mM glucose or with no(More)
PURPOSE Vascular insufficiency of the optic nerve head may contribute to glaucomatous optic neuropathy, especially in normal-tension glaucoma. We investigated the effect of chronic optic nerve head ischemia, created by repeated intravitreal injection of endothelin-1 (ET-1), on the morphology and function of the optic nerve. METHODS In pigmented rabbits,(More)
PURPOSE A sight-threatening complication of diabetes is cell death in retinal capillaries. Currently, the mechanisms responsible for this classic manifestation of diabetic retinopathy remain uncertain. The hypothesis for the current study is that diabetes increases the vulnerability of retinal microvessels to the potentially lethal consequences of having(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the hypoxia-induced death of rat retinal neurons and to determine whether P2X(7) activation is involved in this type of neuronal death. METHODS Cultured retinal neurons from fetal rats were used. The effects and time course of various degrees of hypoxia (1%-5% O(2)) in the death of retinal neurons, were examined. The effects of(More)