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Optical imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution of neural activity in rat cortical slices was used to investigate the dynamics of signal transmission through neural connections in the visual cortex. When inhibition due to gamma-aminobutyric acid was slightly suppressed, horizontal propagation of excitation in both the supra- and infragranular(More)
Glucose metabolism in glycolysis and in mitochondria is pivotal to glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. One or more factors derived from glycolysis other than pyruvate appear to be required for the generation of mitochondrial signals that lead to insulin secretion. The electrons of the glycolysis-derived reduced form of nicotinamide(More)
To elucidate the functional role of phospholipase Cbeta4 (PLCbeta4), which is highly expressed in the Purkinje cells of the rostral cerebellum, cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) and delay and trace eyeblink conditioning were investigated in PLCbeta4-deficient mice. Rostral cerebellar LTD and delay eyeblink conditioning were severely impaired, whereas(More)
Cell-cell interaction and cell rearrangement were examined in the process of epithelial sheet formation during regeneration from hydra cell aggregates. The ectodermal and endodermal epithelial cell layers of Hydra magnipapillata were separated by procaine treatment. Each of the separated layers was then dissociated into single cells and reaggregated to(More)
PURPOSE The endothelins (ETs) cause reactive astrogliosis, which involves neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether blocking the ET signals will protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from optic nerve injury. METHODS We studied the effect of pretreatment with BQ-123, an(More)
To elucidate the role of phospholipase Cbeta (PLCbeta) isozymes in the cerebellum, the distributions of PLCbeta3 and PLCbeta4 were examined in wild-type and PLCbeta4-deficient mutant mice using immunohistochemistry, and the functions were evaluated by measurement of type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1)-mediated inward current and Ca(2+)(More)
Modulation of enzyme activity through nitrosylation has recently been identified as a new physiological activity of nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that NO enhances the TNF-α-induced death of retinal neurons through a suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by nitrosylation. In this study, cells from the RGC-5 line were exposed to different(More)
To investigate the clonal origin of multifocal urothelial tumours, we analysed the p53 tumour-suppressor gene in 3 cases with bladder tumours developing after treatment for a renal pelvic or ureteral tumour and in 1 case with a ureteral tumour after treatment for a bladder tumour. For each case, identical p53 gene mutations were detected in all primary and(More)
Activation of the type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) signaling pathway in the cerebellum involves activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) for the induction of cerebellar long term depression (LTD). The PLC and PKC isoforms that are involved in LTD remain unclear, however. One previous study found no change in LTD in(More)