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Optical imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution of neural activity in rat cortical slices was used to investigate the dynamics of signal transmission through neural connections in the visual cortex. When inhibition due to gamma-aminobutyric acid was slightly suppressed, horizontal propagation of excitation in both the supra- and infragranular(More)
PURPOSE The endothelins (ETs) cause reactive astrogliosis, which involves neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether blocking the ET signals will protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from optic nerve injury. METHODS We studied the effect of pretreatment with BQ-123, an(More)
Modulation of enzyme activity through nitrosylation has recently been identified as a new physiological activity of nitric oxide (NO). We hypothesized that NO enhances the TNF-α-induced death of retinal neurons through a suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by nitrosylation. In this study, cells from the RGC-5 line were exposed to different(More)
Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) allows for quantitative estimation of blood flow in the optic nerve head (ONH), choroid and retina, utilizing the laser speckle phenomenon. The basic technology and clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI, the updated model of LSFG, are summarized in this review. For developing a commercial version of LSFG, the special area sensor(More)
Spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats are an inbred strain of rats with a non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus that were isolated from an outbred colony of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from SDT and SD (controls) rats at 10- and 44-weeks-of-age to determine their retinal function. The amplitudes and implicit times of the(More)
Morphogenetic potentials involved in head formation were examined in a hydra strain (L4) which has a very low budding rate and a large polyp size, and the results were compared to those of the normal strain (105). Hydra tissue has two types of antagonistic morphogenetic potentials which are thought to play important roles in head structure formation: the(More)
The differentiation of hydra nerve cells in the nerve-free tissue of epithelial hydra was examined in Hydra magnipapillata. Nerve cell precursors, the interstitial cells, were introduced into the upper half of epithelial hydra by grafting it onto the lower half of normal hydra. In the tentacles of grafted epithelial hydra, a small number of RF+ ganglion(More)
Here, we examined whether amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein participates in cell death and retinal function using three types of transgenic (Tg) mice in vivo [human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) Tg (Tg 2576) mice, mutant presenilin-1 (PS-1) knock-in mice, and APP/PS-1 double Tg mice]. ELISA revealed that the insoluble form of Abeta(1-40) was markedly(More)
Nerve net formation was examined during head-regeneration and budding of Hydra using indirect immunofluorescence on whole mounts. The nerve net was visualized with an antiserum to a neuropeptide, RFamide. The nerve net forms in two steps: the first is the appearance of ganglion cells at the regenerating tip, and the second is the appearance of sensory cells(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether retinal neurons become more susceptible to injury by nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic conditions. METHODS Cells from the RGC-5 line were exposed to different concentrations (0.1-100 microM) of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, under normoxic and hypoxic (1.0% O(2)) conditions with 5.5 mM glucose or with no(More)