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Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly(More)
The left-right (LR) asymmetry of visceral organs is fundamental to their function and position within the body. Over the past decade or so, the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of such LR asymmetry have been revealed in many vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. These studies have identified a gene network that contributes to this(More)
To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by(More)
BACKGROUND Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the intestine play important roles in the regulation of local immune responses. Although their functions have been studied in a variety of animal experiments, in vitro studies on spatiotemporal behaviors of IELs and their interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to the lack(More)
The bilateral symmetry of the mouse embryo is broken by leftward fluid flow in the node. However, it is unclear how this directional flow is then translated into the robust, left side-specific Nodal gene expression that determines and coordinates left-right situs throughout the embryo. While manipulating Nodal and Lefty gene expression, we have observed(More)
Although transmission of the gene expression program from mother to daughter cells has been suggested to be mediated by gene bookmarking, the precise mechanism by which bookmarking mediates post-mitotic transcriptional re-activation has been unclear. Here, we used a real-time gene expression system to quantitatively demonstrate that transcriptional(More)
Noncoding RNAs play important roles in various aspects of gene regulation. We have identified 7SK RNA to be enriched in nuclear speckles or interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), a subnuclear domain enriched in pre-mRNA processing factors. 7SK RNA, in association with HEXIM 1 and 2, is involved in the inhibition of transcriptional elongation by RNA(More)
Notch signaling regulates cell differentiation and proliferation, contributing to the maintenance of diverse tissues including the intestinal epithelia. However, its role in tissue regeneration is less understood. Here, we show that Notch signaling is activated in a greater number of intestinal epithelial cells in the inflamed mucosa of colitis. Inhibition(More)
Intestinal epithelial cell-derived interleukin (IL)-7 functions as a pleiotropic and nonredundant cytokine in the human intestinal mucosa; however, the molecular basis of its production has remained totally unknown. We here showed that human intestinal epithelial cells both constitutively and when induced by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) produced IL-7, while(More)
It is now clear that functional CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(R)) cells exist as part of the normal immune population and prevent the development of intestinal inflammation. We have recently shown that CD4(+)CD25(+) T(R) cells reside in the intestine and control intestinal homeostasis in humans and mice. In this study, we demonstrate that the TNF family(More)