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OBJECTIVES The key objective for this white paper is to provide an update on progress since we published the first joint-operator white paper on Network Functions Virtualisation in October 2012 and initiated the Network Functions Industry Specification Group (NFV ISG) under the auspices of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). [1] This(More)
Adult stem-cell therapy holds promise for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we describe methods for long-term expansion of colonic stem cells positive for leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5(+) cells) in culture. To test the transplantability of these cells, we reintroduced cultured GFP(+) colon organoids into(More)
Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly(More)
To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by(More)
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the intestine play important roles in the regulation of local immune responses. Although their functions have been studied in a variety of animal experiments, in vitro studies on spatiotemporal behaviors of IELs and their interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to the lack of a(More)
It is well known that immune responses in the intestine remain in a state of controlled inflammation, suggesting that not only active suppression by regulatory T cells plays an important role in the normal intestinal homeostasis, but also its dysregulation leads to the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we demonstrate that the(More)
A growing number of long nuclear-retained non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have recently been described. However, few functions have been elucidated for these ncRNAs. Here, we have characterized the function of one such ncRNA, identified as metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1). Malat1 RNA is expressed in numerous tissues and is highly(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence indicates that corticosteroid therapy might be beneficial for the primary treatment of severe Kawasaki disease. We assessed whether addition of prednisolone to intravenous immunoglobulin with aspirin would reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in patients with severe Kawasaki disease. METHODS We did a multicentre,(More)
The bilateral symmetry of the mouse embryo is broken by leftward fluid flow in the node. However, it is unclear how this directional flow is then translated into the robust, left side-specific Nodal gene expression that determines and coordinates left-right situs throughout the embryo. While manipulating Nodal and Lefty gene expression, we have observed(More)
ZAP-70, a member of the Syk family of tyrosine kinases, has been reported to be expressed exclusively in T and NK cells. We show here that it is expressed throughout B cell development and that it plays a role in the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells in the bone marrow, a checkpoint controlled by signals from the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), which(More)