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OBJECTIVES The key objective for this white paper is to provide an update on progress since we published the first joint-operator white paper on Network Functions Virtualisation in October 2012 and initiated the Network Functions Industry Specification Group (NFV ISG) under the auspices of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). [1] This(More)
Olfactory transduction is thought to be initiated by the binding of odorants to specific receptor proteins in the cilia of olfactory receptor cells. The mechanism by which odorant binding could initiate membrane depolarization is unknown, but the recent discovery of an odorant-stimulated adenylate cyclase in purified olfactory cilia suggests that cyclic AMP(More)
Regeneration and homeostasis in the adult intestinal epithelium is driven by proliferative resident stem cells, whose functional properties during organismal development are largely unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal intestine contains proliferative, immature progenitors, which can be expanded in vitro as Fetal Enterospheres (FEnS). A highly(More)
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the intestine play important roles in the regulation of local immune responses. Although their functions have been studied in a variety of animal experiments, in vitro studies on spatiotemporal behaviors of IELs and their interaction with intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been hampered due to the lack of a(More)
Adult stem-cell therapy holds promise for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Here we describe methods for long-term expansion of colonic stem cells positive for leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5(+) cells) in culture. To test the transplantability of these cells, we reintroduced cultured GFP(+) colon organoids into(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence indicates that corticosteroid therapy might be beneficial for the primary treatment of severe Kawasaki disease. We assessed whether addition of prednisolone to intravenous immunoglobulin with aspirin would reduce the incidence of coronary artery abnormalities in patients with severe Kawasaki disease. METHODS We did a multicentre,(More)
ZAP-70, a member of the Syk family of tyrosine kinases, has been reported to be expressed exclusively in T and NK cells. We show here that it is expressed throughout B cell development and that it plays a role in the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells in the bone marrow, a checkpoint controlled by signals from the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), which(More)
The left-right (LR) asymmetry of visceral organs is fundamental to their function and position within the body. Over the past decade or so, the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment of such LR asymmetry have been revealed in many vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. These studies have identified a gene network that contributes to this(More)
BACKGROUND It is well-known that the lacrimal gland (LG) may be affected in IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4ROD). Recently, IgG4-related ophthalmic lesions other than those of the lacrimal gland have been reported. However, no study to date has revealed the details of these lesions. This study was conducted to evaluate the location and frequency of(More)
To connect human biology to fish biomedical models, we sequenced the genome of spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus), whose lineage diverged from teleosts before teleost genome duplication (TGD). The slowly evolving gar genome has conserved in content and size many entire chromosomes from bony vertebrate ancestors. Gar bridges teleosts to tetrapods by(More)