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Internal nutrient sensors play important roles in feeding behavior, yet their molecular structure and mechanism of action are poorly understood. Using Ca(2+) imaging and behavioral assays, we show that the gustatory receptor 43a (Gr43a) functions as a narrowly tuned fructose receptor in taste neurons. Remarkably, Gr43a also functions as a fructose receptor(More)
Pheromones regulate male social behaviors in Drosophila, but the identities and behavioral role(s) of these chemosensory signals, and how they interact, are incompletely understood. We found that (z)-7-tricosene, a male-enriched cuticular hydrocarbon that was previously shown to inhibit male-male courtship, was essential for normal levels of aggression. The(More)
In male Drosophila, chemosensory cues control many aspects of social behavior. We found that males with a mutated Gustatory receptor 32a gene (Gr32a) show high courtship toward males and mated females, indicating that GR32a functions as a pheromone receptor for a male inhibitory pheromone. Notably, we discovered that tarsal Gr32a-expressing neurons were(More)
Evaluation of food chemicals is essential to make appropriate feeding decisions. The molecular genetic analysis of Gustatory receptor (Gr) genes and the characterization of the neural circuits that they engage has led to a broad understanding of taste perception in adult Drosophila [1, 2]. For example, eight relatively highly conserved members of the Gr(More)
Evaluation of food compounds by chemosensory cells is essential for animals to make appropriate feeding decisions. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, structurally diverse chemicals are detected by multimeric receptors composed of members of a large family of Gustatory receptor (Gr) proteins. Putative sugar and bitter receptors are expressed in(More)
RNA editing in higher-plant chloroplasts involves C-to-U conversions at specific sites. Although in vivo analyses have been performed, little is known about the biochemical aspects of chloroplast editing reactions. Here we improved our original in vitro system and devised a procedure for preparing active chloroplast extracts not only from tobacco plants but(More)
—In this paper, two kinds of control strategies for a three-phase five-level double converter are described on the assumption that the converter is applied to an induction motor drive system. The purposes of the proposed control strategies are to correct voltage imbalance of the dc-bus capacitors, to keep the input power factor at near unity, and to achieve(More)
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