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Mast cells secrete multiple cytokines and play an important role in allergic inflammation. Although it is widely accepted that bacteria infection occasionally worsens allergic airway inflammation, the mechanism has not been defined. In this study, we show that LPS induced Th2-associated cytokine production such as IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 from mast cells and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of mammalian homologues of Drosophila Toll and play important roles in host defense. Two of the TLRs, TLR2 and TLR4, mediate the responsiveness to LPS. Here the gene expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was analyzed in mouse macrophages. Mouse splenic macrophages responded to an intraperitoneal injection or in vitro treatment(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of proteins playing important roles in host defense. Mice defective of functional TLR4 are hyporesponsive to LPS, suggesting that TLR4 is essential for LPS signaling. Here we report the cloning of an alternatively spliced mouse TLR4 (mTLR4) mRNA. The additional exon exists between the second and third exon of the(More)
At least two types of interleukin (IL)-15 mRNA isoforms are generated by alternative splicing at the 5' upstream of exon 5 in mice. To elucidate the potential roles of IL-15 isoforms in immune responses in vivo, we constructed two groups of transgenic mice using originally described IL-15 cDNA with a normal exon 5 (normal IL-15 transgenic [Tg] mice) and(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of mammalian proteins homologous to Drosophila Toll. Human TLR2 was shown to mediate the responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). On the other hand, gene mutations of mouse TLR4 (mTLR4) in LPS-hyporesponsive strains have suggested that mTLR4 is essential for LPS-signaling in mice, but the role of mTLR2 has not been(More)
We have isolated a cDNA homologous to known dual-specificity phosphatases from a mouse macrophage cDNA library and termed it MKP-M (for mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase isolated from macrophages). Three other presumed splice variant isoforms have also been identified for MKP-M. The longest and most abundant mRNA contains an open reading frame(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to follow the course of bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice and to investigate two knockout mouse lines with the aim of providing potential therapeutic targets. Bleomycin (0.25 mg/kg) was administered intranasally six times, once a day. MRI was carried out on spontaneously breathing animals up to day 70 after(More)
Interleukin-12 receptor beta1 (IL12RB1) is expressed on a variety of immune cells, including T and natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages, and is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Levels of IL12RB1 mRNA are dynamically regulated by various cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-15. To reveal the regulatory mechanisms(More)
Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue often accompanies obesity, leading to insulin resistance and increasing the risk for metabolic diseases. MAP3K8 (TPL2/COT) is an important signal transductor and activator of pro-inflammatory pathways that has been linked to obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. We used human adipose tissue biopsies to(More)